Influence of Water Quality on Distribution Patterns and Diversity of Enteromius Fish Species in Small Water Bodies of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya
The Enteromius species are a widely distributed group of freshwater fishes in Africa. However, their abundance and diversity are affected by environmental quality. This study therefore investigated the relationship between water quality variables and Enteromius assemblages in eight (8) small water bodies in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Selected insitu and lab analyzed physico-chemical water quality variables were determined across the reservoirs. Fish species were also collected from the different reservoirs for identification and enumeration. All the determined variables; temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, salinity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were significantly different (p < 0.05) across the reservoirs. A total of 756 fish individuals from five species; Enteromius apleurogramma, Enteromius cercops, Enteromius neumayeri, Enteromius paludinosas, and Enteromius yongei were recorded. Enteromius neumayeri was the most abundant while Enteromius yongei recorded the least abundance with only 19 individuals. Fish abundance and diversity was significantly different across the reservoirs. Species richness differed among the reservoirs with Chebara recording the highest number of taxa (3 taxa) while Chepkosom, Ellegrin, Kerita and Kesses recording one taxa each. All the sampled Enteromius fish species had negative allometric growth (b < 3, t-test, p < 0.05). Nonetheless, they were all in good growth condition (Kn > 1). The differences in species diversity and richness in the study can be attributed to variation in the tolerance level of environmental degradation due to anthropogenic impacts observed. Biodiversity is important for the future sustainability of natural resources that include commercial fisheries. Fish species distribution is also an important indicator of ecological health as the abundance and health of fish indicate the health of the water bodies. Given that there was no single reservoir that supported all the Enteromius fish diversity in healthy and sustainable populations, conservation and protection of all the reservoirs in Uasin Gishu is crucial.
Achieng, A. O., Masese, F. O., Coffey, T. J., Raburu, P. O., Agembe, S. W., Febria, C. M., & Kaunda-Arara, B. (2021). Assessment of the ecological health of Afrotropical Rivers using fish assemblages: A case study of selected rivers in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Frontiers in Water, 80.
Adeoba, M., Tesfamichael, S. G., & Yessoufou, K. (2019). Preserving the tree of life of the fish family Cyprinidae in Africa in the face of the ongoing extinction crisis. Genome, 62(3), 170-182.
Anam, R. O. (2009). Some Aspects of the Biology of the Catfish in Chekoilel River (Doctoral dissertation, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya).
APHA-American Public Health Association, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edn. WPCF-Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.
Arofah, S., Sari, L. A., & Kusdarwati, R. (2021, March). The relationship with N/P ratio to phytoplankton abundance in mangrove Wonorejo waters, Rungkut, Surabaya, East Java. In IOP
Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 718, No. 1, p. 012018).
Aura, C. M., Raburu, P. O., & Herrmann, J. (2011). Macroinvertebrates’ community structure in rivers Kipkaren and Sosiani, river Nzoia basin, Kenya. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 3(2), 39-46.
Benejam, L., Benito, J., Ordóñez, J., Armengol, J., & García-Berthou, E. (2008). Short-term effects of a partial drawdown on fish condition in a eutrophic reservoir. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 190(1), 3-11.
Chepsiror, P. K. (2020). Incentives in Governance of Water Resources to Mitigate Impacts of Dams on Livelihoods-a Case Study of Chebara, Elgeyo-marakwet County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
Dejen, E., Osse, J. W., & Sibbing, F. A. (2003). Ecological position of ‘small barbs’ and their potential for fisheries: An option to reduce fishing pressure on ‘large barbs’ of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)?. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 6(3), 337-342.
Dresilign, E. D. (2003). Ecology and potential for fishery of the small barbs (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Wageningen University and Research.
Englmaier, G. K., Hayes, D. S., Meulenbroek, P., Terefe, Y., Lakew, A., Tesfaye, G., ... & Graf, W. (2020). Longitudinal river zonation in the tropics: examples of fish and caddisflies from the endorheic Awash River, Ethiopia. Hydrobiologia, 847(19), 4063-4090.
FAO. (1994). Small water bodies and their fisheries in South Africa. Rome: FAO.
Fisher, R. A., Corbet, A. S. & Williams, C. B. 1943: The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology 12, 42–58.
Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2010). FishBase.
García, A., Jorde, K., Habit, E., Caamaño, D., & Parra, O. (2011). Downstream environmental effects of dam operations: changes in habitat quality for native fish species. River Research and Applications, 27(3), 312-327.
Gichuru, N. N., Manyala, J. O., & Raburu, P. O. (2019). Some aspects of reproduction and feeding habits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three dams in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 24(2), 181-189.
Gieswein, A., Hering, D., & Feld, C. K. (2017). Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed. Science of the Total Environment, 593, 27-35.
Hamzah, S. N., Paruntu, C. P., Mingkid, W. M., Rembet, U. N., Tumbol, R. A., & Lasabuda, R. (2020). Reef fishes community performances in Olele marine tourism area, Bone Bolango Regency, Indonesia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 13(2), 597-604.
Hill, M. O. 1973: Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54, 427-432.
Kambikambi, M. J. (2020). Taxonomic, ecological and biogeographic re-evaluation of temperate stream fishes in Southern Africa: a case study of the enteromius anoplus complex.
Kambikambi, M. J., Kadye, W. T., & Chakona, A. (2021). Allopatric differentiation in the Enteromius anoplus complex in South Africa, with the revalidation of Enteromius cernuus and Enteromius oraniensis, and description of a new species, Enteromius mandelai (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Journal of Fish Biology, 99(3), 931-954.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). 2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume II: distribution of population by administrative units.
Le Cren, E. D. (1951). The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). The Journal of Animal Ecology, 201-219.
López-Carr, D., & Burgdorfer, J. (2013). Deforestation drivers: population, migration, and tropical land use. Environment, 55(1), 3-11.
Magurran, A. E. 2004: Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Masese, F. O., & McClain, M. E. 2012: Trophic resources and emergent food web attributes in rivers of the Lake Victoria Basin: a review with reference to anthropogenic influences. Ecohydrology 5, 685-707.
Masese, F. O., Achieng, O. A., Raburu, P. O., Lawrence, T., Ives, J. T., Nyamweya, C., & Kaunda-Arara, B. (2020). Patterns of diversity and distribution of riverine fishes of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya. International Review of Hydrobiology.
Masese, F. O., Kitaka, N., Kipkemboi, J., Gettel, G. M., Irvine, K., & McClain, M. E. (2014). Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in Kenyan highland streams: evidence for a diverse shredder guild. Freshwater Science, 33(2), 435-450.
Masese, F. O., Salcedo-Borda, J. S., Gettel, G. M., Irvine, K., & McClain, M. E. (2017). Influence of catchment land use and seasonality on dissolved organic matter composition and ecosystem metabolism in headwater streams of a Kenyan river. Biogeochemistry, 132(1-2), 1-22.
Matolla, G. K. (2015). Parasitological And Ecological Assessment of Small Water Bodies (Swbs) For Production of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) In Uasin Gishu and Siaya Counties, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Eldoret).
Minaya, V., McClain, M. E., Moog, O., Omengo, F., & Singer, G. A. (2013). Scale-dependent effects of rural activities on benthic macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical characteristics in headwater streams of the Mara River, Kenya. Ecological Indicators, 32, 116-122.
Mironovsky, A. N. (2020). Large African barbs: vectors of diversification of individuals of the generalized form as the source of phenetic diversity of the Barbus intermedius complex in Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Journal of Ichthyology, 60(3), 387-398.
Moncayo-Estrada, R., Lyons, J., Escalera-Gallardo, C., & Lind, O. T. (2012). Long-term change in the biotic integrity of a shallow tropical lake: a decadal analysis of the Lake Chapala fish community. Lake and Reservoir Management, 28(1), 92-104.
Mwaijengo, G. N., Msigwa, A., Njau, K. N., Brendonck, L., & Vanschoenwinkel, B. (2020). Where does land use matter most? Contrasting land use effects on river quality at different spatial scales. Science of the Total Environment, 715, 134825.
Mwaura, F. (2006). Some aspects of water quality characteristics in small shallow tropical man-made reservoirs in Kenya. African journal of science and technology, 7(1).
Nagrodski, A., Raby, G. D., Hasler, C. T., Taylor, M. K., & Cooke, S. J. (2012). Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation. Journal of environmental management, 103, 133-141.
Namiq, K., & Mahmood, S. (2019). Morphometric, mersitic and some blood parameters of Barbus grypus Shabout (Heckel 1843) in Sulaimani natural water resources, Iraq. Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries, 6(1), 153-162.
Ndeda, V. M., Mateos, M., & Hurtado, L. A. (2018). Evolution of African barbs from the Lake Victoria drainage system, Kenya. PeerJ, 6, e5762.
Ngodhe, S. O., Raburu, P. O., & Achieng, A. (2014). The impact of water quality on species diversity and richness of macroinvertebrates in small water bodies in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 6(1), 32-41.
Nhiwatiwa, T., & Marshall, B. E. (2007). Water quality and plankton dynamics in two small dams in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 32(2), 139-151.
Nhiwatiwa, T., Maseko, Z. & Dalu, T. Fish communities in small subtropical reservoirs subject to extensive drawdowns, with focus on the biology of Enteromius paludinosus (Peters, 1852) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Ecol Res 32, 971–982 (2017).
Ochieng, V. O., Matolla, G. K., & Khyria, S. K. (2012). A Study of Clinostomum affecting Oreochromis niloticus in small water bodies in Eldoret-Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3(4), 158-163.
Ochumba, P. B. O., & Manyala, J. O. (1992). Distribution of fishes along the Sondu‐Miriu River of Lake Victoria, Kenya with special reference to upstream migration, biology and yield. Aquaculture Research, 23(6), 701-719.
Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Odongkara, K., Okello, W., Mbabazi, D., Wandera, S. B., Ndawula, L. M., & Natugonza, V. (2013). Variations and changes in habitat, productivity, composition of aquatic biota and fisheries of the Kyoga Lake system: lessons for management. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 38(sup1), 1-14.
Okeyo, D. O. (2014). Artisanal and commercial fishing gear and practices in the L ake V ictoria basin drainage systems of K enya: A photodiagrammatic verification. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 19(3), 192-205.
Osuka KE, Mlewa CM. Morphomeristic study of sympatric Barbus species from a man- made reservoir in upland Kenya. African Journal of Ecology. 2011; 1-7.
Pielou, E. C. 1975: Ecological Diversity. Wiley InterScience, New York.
Prokofiev, A. M., Levin, B. A., & Golubtsov, A. S. (2021). A new species of Enteromius from the Bale Mountain Region, southeastern Ethiopia (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
Raburu, P.O. & Masese, F.O. (2012). Development of a fish-based index of biotic integrity (FIBI) for monitoring riverine ecosystems in the Lake Victoria drainage basin, Kenya. River Research and Applications 28, 23–38.
Ren, P., He, H., Song, Y., Cheng, F., & Xie, S. (2016). The spatial pattern of larval fish assemblages in the lower reach of the Yangtze River: potential influences of river–lake connectivity and tidal intrusion. Hydrobiologia, 766(1), 365-379.
Republic of Kenya (2003). Economic survey, Government Printer, Nairobi.
Ricker, W. E., & Carter, N. M. (1958). Handbook of computations for biological statistics of fish populations, No. 119. The Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Queen’s printer and controller of stationary, Ottawa.
Schinegger, R., Palt, M., Segurado, P., & Schmutz, S. (2016). Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 1079-1088.
Schinegger, R., Pucher, M., Aschauer, C., & Schmutz, S. (2018). Configuration of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in Alpine River basins of Austria. Science of the Total Environment, 616, 17-28.
Schmidt, R. C., & Bart Jr, H. L. (2015). Nomenclatural changes should not be based on equivocally supported phylogenies: Reply to Yang et al. 2015. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 90, 193-194.
Simpson, E. H. 1949: Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688.
Sitati, A., Raburu, P. O., Yegon, M. J., & Masese, F. O. (2021). Land-use influence on the functional organization of Afrotropical macroinvertebrate assemblages. Limnologica, 88, 125875.
Tamario, C., Sunde, J., Petersson, E., Tibblin, P., & Forsman, A. (2019). Ecological and evolutionary consequences of environmental change and management actions for migrating fish. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 271.
Uasin Gishu County (2013). Integrated Development Plan 2013-2018.
Vergés, A., Vanderklift, M. A., Doropoulos, C., & Hyndes, G. A. (2011). Spatial patterns in herbivory on a coral reef are influenced by structural complexity but not by algal traits. PloS one, 6(2), e17115.
Witte, F., Goldschmidt, T., Wanink, J., van Oijen, M., Goudswaard, K., Witte-Maas, E., & Bouton, N. (1992). The destruction of an endemic species flock: quantitative data on the decline of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria. Environmental biology of fishes, 34(1), 1-28.
Yegon, M. J., Masese, F. O., Sitati, A., & Graf, W. (2021). Elevation and land use as drivers of macroinvertebrate functional composition in Afromontane headwater streams. Marine and Freshwater Research.
Yongo, E., Cishahayo, L., Mutethya, E., Alkamoi, B. M. A., Costa, K., & Bosco, N. J. (2021). A review of the populations of tilapiine species in lakes Victoria and Naivasha, East Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 46(3), 293-303.
Zainudin, M. R. Y. (2005). Assessment of fish community distribution and composition in the Perak River in order to determine biological indicators for freshwater health. Master of thesis. Universiti Sains Malaysia.