Agricultural Productivity and Labour Allocation Trade-Off Crises for Agriculture, Cooking Energy Sourcing and Off-Farm Employment in Developing Countries: Evidence from Western Kenya

  • F. M. Mwaura University of Eldoret, Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, P.O. Box 1125 Eldoret, Kenya
  • M. Ngigi Egerton University, Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness Management, P.O. Box 536 Njoro, Kenya
  • G. Obare Egerton University, Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness Management, P.O. Box 536 Njoro, Kenya
Keywords: Poverty, smallholding rural-employment, developing countries


Understanding smallholder resource allocation and trade-off in socially and ecologically dynamic agricultural production dispensation is critical for effective rural developmental    interventions. Data derived from a survey of 380 smallholders in western Kenya was used to assess labour availability and to evaluate agricultural productivity in labour allocation trade-off between biomass cooking energy sourcing, agriculture, and off-farm employment. Heterogeneity in labour allocation among members and sub-counties were observed. On average leisure accounted for 80 percent of total household time, A three-stage regression showed that maize yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the farmers’ age, environmental factors, and the number of trees planted. A recommendation for improvement of rural enterprise profitability to enhance efficiency in labour allocation is provided.  


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How to Cite
Mwaura, F., Ngigi, M., & Obare, G. (2022, July 6). Agricultural Productivity and Labour Allocation Trade-Off Crises for Agriculture, Cooking Energy Sourcing and Off-Farm Employment in Developing Countries: Evidence from Western Kenya. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 7(1), Pg 277-293. Retrieved from