Social - Financial Effects of Universities’ Closure due to COVID-19 on Students’ Learning Resilience
The disruption experienced in the University education system of Uganda caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The purpose of the study was to investigate the social-financial effects of Universities’ closure due to COVID-19 pandemic on students’ learning resilience. The investigation was guided by the trait resilience and social learning theories in the context of the need’s theory framework. A case study design was used and data was collected using an on-line questionnaire from 328 randomly selected students of Kyambogo University. Also, postings from student social media platforms were analysed to enrich the findings. The results indicate a decline in the students’ learning resilience from very high to moderate before and a year and half into COVID19 pandemic. Additionally, the regression results reveal that social-financial aspects explain 40% (R2 = 0.404) of the variability in student’s learning resilience. Therefore, efforts by University management, lectures, peers and family members to enhance students’ learning resilience should address the social and personal finance aspects of students in terms of having responsible social support networks and interactions on top of managing personal finance wisely. The theoretical implication is to imbue resilience and social learning theories into Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory to generate a broad perspective of learning resilience.
Andrew, A., Cattan, S. Dias C., Farquharson, C. Kraftman, L., Krutikova, S. (2020); “Learning during the lockdown: real-time data on children’s experiences during home learning.” IFS Briefing Note BN288.
Awais M. Laber M.F, Rasheed N, khursheed (2016); “Impact of financial literacy and investment experience on risk tolerance and investment decisions: empirical evidence in Pakistan,” International journal of economics and financial issues; Vol. 6 (1), 73-79.
Bandura, A. (1973); “A Social Media Analysis.” Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. & Walters, R. H. (1963); Social Learning and personality Development, New York; Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Barrafrem, K., Västfjäll, D., &Tinghög, G. (2020); “Financial well-being, COVID-19, and the financial better-than average-effect.” Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 100410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbef.2020.100410
Bayrakdar, S., & Guveli, A. (2020); “Inequalities in home learning and schools’ provision of distance teaching during school closure of COVID-19 lockdown in the UK.” ISER Working Paper No. 2020-09
Berry, J., Karlan D. &Pradhan M. (2018); “The Impact of Financial Education for Youth in Ghana”, World Development, 102 (71) 71-89; Elsevier.
Bland, A. M., DeRoberts E. M. (2020); “Maslow’s Unacknowledged Contributions to Development Psychology.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 60(6); 934 – 958.
Butler, F.C., Martin, J. A., Perryman, A. A., and Upson, J. W. (2012); “Examining the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of firm financial performance.” Strategic Management Review, 6, 57 – 74. Doi:10.4128/1930-4560-6.1.57
Cronbach I, J. (1951); “Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests” Psychometrika, 16, 297 -334.
Fang, G., Chan, P. W. K., &Kalogeropoulos, P. (2020); “Social Support and Academic Achievement of Chinese Low-Income Children” A Mediation Effect of Academic Resilience. International Journal of Psychological Research, 13(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4480
Field, A. (2009); Discovering Statistics Using SPSS; 3rd Edition, Sage Publication, London.
Ghanizadeh, A. Mkiabadi, H. &Navokhi, S. A. (2019); “Relating EFL University students’ mindfulness and resilience to self-fulfillment and motivation in learning.” Issues in Educational Research, 29(3), 695-714.
Hall, T., Connolly, C., Grádaigh, S.Ó., Burden, K., Kearney, M., Schuck, S., Bottema, J., Cazemier, G., Hustinx, W., Evens, M. and Koenraad, T., (2020). Education in precarious times: a comparative study across six countries to identify design priorities for mobile learning in a pandemic. Information and Learning Sciences.
Jadwa, P. (2021); “Kyambogo University Students Protest Suspension of Physical Learning”, The independent, May 28th.
Jæger, M. M., &Blaabæk, E. H. (2020); “Inequality in Learning Opportunities during Covid-19: Evidence from Library Takeout” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 68, 1-5.
Janna. S., & Rohmatun. R, (2018); “Relationship between social support and resilience among TambakLorok rob flood survivor.” Proveski. 13(1), 1-12
Kumalasari, D., & Akmal, S. D. (2021); “Less Stress, More Satisfaction with Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Role of Academic Resilience”, Psychological Research on Urban Society, Vol. 4(1): 36-44.
Khairina, K., Roslan, S., Ahmad, N., Zaremohzzabieh, Z., & Mohamad Arsad, N. (2020); Predictors of Resilience among Indonesian Students in Malaysian Universities. Asian Journal of University Education, 16(3), 169-182. doi:10.24191/ajue. v16i3.11081
Krejcie R.V., Morgan D. W. (1970); Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1970;30(3):607-610. doi:10.1177/001316447003000308
Lietz C. (2011); Strength M. Stories of Successful Reunification: A Narrative Study of Family Resilience in Child Welfare. Families in Society. 2011;92(2):203-210. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.4102
Liez, C. (2004); “Resiliency Based Social Learning: A Strengths Based Approach,” Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 22:2, 21-36, DOI: 10.1300/
Maslow, A.H. (1943); “The theory of human motivation”. Psychological Review; Vol.50 (3); 370 – 396.
Narayanan, S. S. and WengOn A., C. (2016). “The influence of perceived social support and self-efficacy on resilience among first year Malaysian students”. Kajian Malaysia 34(2): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/km2016.34.2.1
Olga C.S., Figari, F., Fiorio, F., Kuypers, S., Marchal, S., Romaguera, M., Valentinova T., Gerlinde, V. (2021); “Welfare resilience at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic
in a selection of European Countries: impact on public finance and household incomes” EURIMOD Working Papers EM4/21, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
Quintiliani, L. Antonella S., Flavia V., Giuseppe C.&Vittoradolfo, T. (2021); “Resilience and psychological impact on Italian University students during COVID-19 Pandemic.” Distance learning and health, Psychology, Health & Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2021.1891266 Taylor& Francis Online
Ruiz-Párraga, G.T., López-Martínez, A. E., Gómez-Pérez, L. (2012), Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Resilience Scale in a Spanish Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Sample, The Journal of Pain, 13, (11), 1090-1098.
Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial Resilience and Protective Mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(3), 316-331.
Richardson, G. E. (2002): “The meta theory of resilience and resiliency.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 307–321.
Kwon, R.& Cabrera, J. F. (2019); “Socioeconomic factors and mass shootings in the United States,” Critical Public Health, 29:2, 138-145, DOI: 10.1080/09581596.2017.1383599
Sarmiento, P. Ponce, R. and Bertolin, A. (2021); “Resilience and COVID-19. An Analysis in University Students during Confinement,” Education Sciences, 11, 533-553.
Sears, R. R, Maccoby, E. E, & Levin, H. (1957); Patterns of Child Rearing. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
Stewart, H., Watson, N., & Campbell, M. (2018); “The cost of school holidays for children from low-income families.” Childhood, 25(4), 516-529.
Sudindra V. R. &Naidu J. G. (2018); “Financial behavior and decision making”, International journey of creative research, 6(1), 1427-1437.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics, UBOS (2020). “Social Economic impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Uganda”, The Uganda High Frequency Phone Survey; World Bank.
United Nations, UN (2020); “The Impact of COVID on Children”, Policy brief No. 2
UNESCO (2020); “UNESCO COVID-19 Education response”, Education Sector Issue Notes. Supporting Teachers and Education Personnel during Times of Crisis; UNESCO; Santiago, Spain.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), (2020); Social Economic Impact of COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda; Policy Brief; No.1
Werner, E. E. (1986). Resilient offspring of alcoholics: A longitudinal study for birth to age 18. Journal Studies on Alcohol, 47: 34–40.
Wester, K. L., Borders, L. D., Boul, S. and Horton, E. (2013); “Research quality: Critique of quantitative of quantitative articles in the Journal of Counseling and Development.” Journal of Counseling & Development, 91,280-290. Doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2013.00096x
Wilks, S. E. (2008); Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Resilience Scale Among Alzheimer’s Caregivers. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other
Dementias, 143–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317507313012
Yin, R.K. (2013); “Case Study Research: Design and Methods”, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.