Synthesis, Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles and their Application in Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste water

  • Lucy J. Chebor School of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Eldoret, Kenya
  • Lusweti Kituyi School of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Eldoret, Kenya
  • Dickson Andala Department of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kenyatta University, Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Adsorption, ZnO, Nanoparticles

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity and its contamination with toxic metal ions represent a serious worldwide problem in the 21st century and conditions are particularly bad in developing countries. In an effort to reduce the environmental and health effects of heavy metals in wastewater, various techniques have been employed. However, most of these techniques are expensive and ineffective in complete removal of heavy metals from the waters. Nanotechnology is a promising field in waste water treatment. This study aimed at assessing the efficiency of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles in adsorption of heavy metal ions from waste water. The objectives of this study were to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles, characterize and apply them y it in adsorption of heavy metals from waste waters. Precipitation technique was used to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles by synthesis of two samples L1 and L2 which were characterized using power X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infra-Red (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), methods of analysis. The PXRD results showed diffraction peaks which were indexed to ZnO reference as per JCPDS file 80-0075. The size of ZnO nanoparticles was found to be 26 nm. FTIR spectra showed a broad band at around 430 cm-1 with shoulder shape, characteristics of Zn-O bond. The images obtained by SEM showed rod shaped clusters of nanoparticles which were distributed well within a range of 100 nm which is a favorable property to exhibit better photo catalytic activity. The EDX results showed elemental composition of ZnO nanoparticles which showed 54% Zn, 44.07% O and 1.93% Mn impurities for L1 and 55.34% Zn, 42.3% O and 2.37% Mn impurities for L2.The results of heavy metal ions adsorption showed an increase in percentage removal with increase in adsorbent dose and contact time. There was a decrease with increase in heavy metal concentration. Thus, ZnO nanoparticles can be used as an adsorbent of waste water from textile and metallurgical industries. Future studies could focus on possibilities of improving and commercializing this material through designing a treatment facility that incorporates commercial nano ZnO on large scale waste water treatment.

References

Bhattacharyya, K.G.and Gupta, S.S. (2008). Influence of acid activation on adsorption of Ni (II) and Cu (II) on kaolinite and montmorillonite: Kinetic and thermodynamic study, Chem. Eng. J. 136, 1–13.

Crini, G. (2005). Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Progress in polymer science, 30(1), 38-70.

Elouear, Z., Bouzid, J., Boujelben, N., Feki, M., Jamoussi, F., & Montiel, A. (2008). Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by activated phosphate rock. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156(1), 412-420.

Engates, K. E. and Shipley, H. J. (2011). Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: effect of particle size, solid concentration, and exhaustion. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18(3), 386-395.

Gu F., Wang S.F., Lu M.K., Zhou G.J., Xu D., and YuanD.R. Langmuir., (2004) 20: 3528.

Herrmann, V. and Helmoltz, P. (2010). Influence of stabilizers in ZnO nanodispersions on the performance of the nano particles. Phys Status Solid, 207(7), 1684 – 1688

Holzwarth, U. and Gibson, N. (2011). The Scherrer equation versus the'Debye-Scherrer equation'. Nature Nanotechnology, 6(9), 534-534.

IBM Corporation (2001). IBM Zurich Research Laboratory: Lab Overview. [Online].Available: http://www.zurich.ibm.com/imagegallery/stm/index2.html

Jing,Hu., Cuohua,Chen., Irene,M.C.L.O(2005).Removal and recovery of chromium six from waste water by maghemite nanoparticles

Joshi, K.M. and Shrivastava V.S. (2012). Removal of methylene blue dye aqueous solution using photo catalysis, Int.J.nano Dim, 2(4): 241-252

Kansal, S.K., Singh M. and Sudc, D. (2006). Studies on photodegradation of two commercial dyes in aqueous phase using different photocatalysts. J Hazardous material, in press.

Kant, S. and Kumar, A. (2012). Comparative analysis of structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO prepared by sol-gel method. VBRI press. India, 3(4) 350-354

Kumar, K.Y., Muralidhara, H.B., Arthoba, N.Y., Balasubramanyam, J. and Hanumanthappa, H. (2013).Hierarchically assembled mesoporous ZnO nanorods for the removal of lead and cadmium by using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method. Powder Technol. 239: 208–216.

Shanthi, S. and Muthuselvi, U. (2012) A study of morphology of synthesized NanoZnO and its application in photodegradation of malachite green dye using different sources of energy 4 39-52

Singh, S., Barick, K. C. and Bahadur, D. (2011).Novel and efficient three dimensional mesoporous ZnO nano assemblies for environmental remediation. Int.J. Nanosci. 10: 1001-1005.

Soltaninezhad, M. and Aminifar, A. (2011).Study of nanostructures of ZnO as photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants. Int.J. Nano Dim, 2(2) 137-145

Trivedi, P., & Axe, L. (2000). Modeling Cd and Zn sorption to hydrous metal oxides. Environmental Science & Technology, 34(11), 2215-2223.

Wu, P.X., Wu, W.M., Li, S.Z. Xing, N. Zhu, N.W, Li, P. Wu, J.H. Yang, C. and Dang, Z. (2009). Removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by adsorption using Femontmorillonite, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169; 824–830.

Yantasee, W., Warner, C. L., Sangvanich, T., Addleman, R. S., Carter, T. G., Wiacek, R. J., ... & Warner, M. G. (2007). Removal of heavy metals from aqueous systems with thiol functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Environmental science & technology, 41(14), 5114-5119.

Yantasee,W. Warner,C.L. Sangvanich,T. Addleman,R.S. Carter, T.G, Wiacek,R.J. Fryxell,G.E. Timchalk,C. and Warner, M.G. (2007). Removal of heavy metals from aqueoussystems with thiol functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 5114–5119.

Yuan, Q., Li, N., Chi, Y., Geng, W., Yan, W., Zhao, Y., Li, X. and Dong, B. (2013) Effect of large pore size of multifunctional mesoporous microsphere on removal of heavy metal ions. J. Hazard. Mater. 254–255: 157–165.

Zhang, J., Fu, D., Xu, Y. and Liu, C. (2010). Optimization of parameters on photo-catalytic degradation of chloramphenicol using TiO2 as photo-catalyst by response surface methodology. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22; 1281 – 1289.
Published
2018-04-06
How to Cite
Chebor, L., Kituyi, L., & Andala, D. (2018, April 6). Synthesis, Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles and their Application in Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste water. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 3(4), pp 33-40. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/75
Section
Articles