Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Activities of Ocimum gratissimum and Nepeta cataria against Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi and their Larvicidal Effect against Anopheles Gambiae
This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and larvicidal activity of Ocimum gratissimum and Nepeta cataria against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Anopheles gambiae. S. Typhi was isolated from raw egg using Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA), characterized and identified using Gram staining, colonial description and biochemical characteristics. The phytochemical constituents of the leaves extracts were determined quantitatively using spectrophotometric method. The antibacterial activity was carried out using agar-well diffusion method. Tube dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using double-fold serial dilution at concentration 25mg/ml to 400mg/ml. The larvicidal activity of the leaves extracts was carried out by subjecting A. gambiae larvae to varied concentration of the leaves extracts using in vitro assay at room temperature for 72 h. The phytochemical analysis of the leaves extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloid, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, phenolics and essential oil. The antibacterial activities of the leaves extracts showed that ethanol and aqueous extracts of N. cataria (16.30mm, 8.30mm) exhibited slightly higher activity than O. gratissimum (15.70mm,7.67 mm) and their activities differed significantly (p≤0.05) from that of ciprofloxacin (21.30 mm). The result of MICs and MBCs of the leaves extracts of N. cataria and O. gratissimum showed that the N. cataria leaf extract exhibited more inhibitory activities against the tested organism. The larvicidal activities of the leaves extracts at doses (0.1ml and 0.2ml) showed that O. gratissimum (40%, 46.67%) differed significantly by (p≤0.05) from N. cataria (33.3%, 46.67%) at their lower doses. The result of LT50 and LT90 of O. gratissimum (70,116) and N. cataria (71,117) revealed their pronounced larvicidal activities against A. gambiae. This study suggests that O. gratissimum and N. cataria leaves extracts could be used as alternative therapy for typhoid fever, and as pesticides for A. gambiae larvae.
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