Principals’ Scope of ICT Use in Curriculum Implementation in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya
The appreciation of schoolprincipals’ leadership role in enhancing the use of Information and Communication and Technology (ICT) in recent years has driven many countries and institutions of learning in particular to focus more on their inputs in driving integration of ICT in education. The study sought to analyze the principals’ scope of ICT use in curriculum implementation in public secondary schools in Meru County. The study sampled 211 public secondary schools from Meru County through stratified sampling technique. The sample comprised of 335 teachers, 1441 students selected through simple random sampling method and 211 principals selected through purposive sampling. Data collection was done through use of interview schedules, questionnaires, and observation checklists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics where qualitative data was discussed under suitable themes derived from the objectives of the study while quantitative data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages. The study established that the principals’ scope of ICT use in curriculum implementation is minimal. The study concluded that, limited use of ICT by principals in teaching and learning has negatively affected their leadership role in enhancing the use of ICT in curriculum implementation. It recommended that the Ministry of Education should play greater role in developing and improving ICT pedagogical skills in principals to be role models in the use of ICT in curriculum implementation.
Albirini, A.A. (2006). Teacher’s Attitudes toward Information and Technology The case of Syrian EFL Teachers. Journal of Computers and Education, 47, 373-398
Bee, T. & Chia, H. (2008). Exploring the extent of ICT adoption among secondary school teachers in Malaysia. International Journal of Computing and ICT Research, 2(2)
Bishop, P. (2012). Information Communication Technology and School Leaders. Handbook of Educational Leadership and Management. Edinburgh gate: Pearson Education Limited.
Creighton, T. (2003). The Principal as Technology Leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gurr, D. (2010). The impact of Information Communication Technology on the work of school Principals. Learning & Managing, 6(1), 63-67.
Gurr, D. (2004) ICT, Leadership in Education and E-Leadership. Discourse: Studies in Fancy That Refuses to Fade Away. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4(3), 1-20.
Haddad, W. D. (2011). Is instructional technology necessary for learning? Techknowlogi.org, http://www.techknowlogia.org/TK 19
Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional Leadership and the School Principal: A Passing the Cultural Politics of Education, 25(1), 113-124.
Ifeoma, E.O. (2010). Roles and Action of Schools Principals in Managing Curricular Reform in Nigeria; Society of Education, India.Http/Www.Soeegram.Com
ITU. (2003). World Summit on the Information Society: Plan of Action. http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.htm.
Joyce, H. L. K., & Shanti D. (2013). Towards a TPACK-fostering ICT instructional Process for teachers: Lessons from the implementation of interactive whiteboard Instruction; Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(2), 233.
Kidombo, H. J., Gakuu, C. M., & Ndiritu, A. (2013). Institutional Management and Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning in Selected Kenyan Schools an International Journal of Teachers' Professional Development, 17(6), 15-17.
Kompf, M. (2005). Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the Seduction of Knowledge, Teaching, and Learning: What Lies Ahead for Education. Curriculum Inquiry, 35(2).
Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2ed). New Delhi: New Age International Limited Publishers.
Laaria, M. (2013). Leadership Challenges in the Implementation of ICT in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya Journal of Education and Learning, 2(1)
Leach, J. (2008). Do new information and communications technologies have a role to play in the achievement of education for all? British Educational Research Journal, 34(6), 783-805.
Lee, M., & Gaffney, M. (2009). Leading Schools in a Digital Age, Leading a Digital School. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Macharia, T. M. (2013). Issues and Challenges in the Implementation of Computer Studies Curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University.
Margaret, O. G. (2010). How can Primary School Principals maximize ICT acceptance and Usage in the Sample Schools in accordance with the Department of Education & Science’s ICT for Schools Policy? Unpublished Master’s thesis, National University of Ireland.
Miima, F.A. (2014). Integration of Information Communication Technologies in Teaching and Learning of Kiswahili Languages in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenyatta University.
Minae, I. M. (2014) Access and Pedagogical Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Secondary Schools in Nairobi and Kiambu Counties: The Case of Computers for Schools Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenyatta University.
Mohammad, M. (2012). The impact of e-Learning and e-Teaching. International Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 6(1), 40. (Online). https://www.waset.org.
Mulkeen, A. (2003). What Can Policy Makers Do to Encourage Integration of Information and Communications Technology? Evidence from the Irish School System. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2(2), 277-293.
Mutula, S.M. (2008). Digital Divide and Economic Development. A Case Study of Sub-Saharan Africa: Electronic Library, 26(4), 23-67
Nyagorme, P. (2014). E-Learning Adoption and Utilization; A Comparative Study of Kenyatta Kenya and University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Unpublished PhD Research Thesis, Kenyatta University.
Omollo, D.O., Indoshi, F.C., & Ayere, M.A., (2013). Attitude of Teachers and Students Towards Use of Information and Communication Technology in the Implementation of Biology Curriculum in Selected Secondary Schools; Research Journal in Organization Psychology Educational studies, 2(3), 76-83.
Omwenga, E. I. (2003). Pedagogical Issues and E-learning Cases: Integrating ICTs into Teaching and Learning process. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Omwenga+Elijah%2C+thesis&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&as_vis=1
Pan Africa Research Agenda (2011). When Technology Makes, A Difference; 12ways to Optimize the Use of ICT at Your Work. www.ict.africa.org
Pollizi, G. (2011). Measuring schools’ principals support for integration in palemo Italy.Journal of media literacy education, 3(2), 113-122. www.jinle.org
Sandholtz, J. H., & Reilly, B. (2004). Teachers, not technicians: Rethinking technical expectations for teachers. Teachers College Record, 106(3), 487–512.
Sathiamoorthy, Sailesh, S. & Zuraidah, A. (2012). Principals Strategies for Leading Integration: The Malaysian Perspective. Creative Education, (3), 111-115
Serhan, D. (2007). School Principals’ Attitudes Towards the Use of Technology: United Arab Emirates Technology Workshop. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(2), 42–46
Tang, P. S., & Ang, P. H. (2002). The diffusion of information technology in Singapore schools: A process framework. New Media &Society, 4, 457–478
Tanui, E. K. (2003). Relative effects of a computer-based instruction in accounting on students’ achievement, perception of classroom environment and motivation in secondary schools in Kenya. Doctoral Thesis, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya.
Tondeur, J., Van Keer, H., Van Braak, J. & Valcke, M. (2008). Computers & Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, 51, 212-223
Tubin, D. (2006). When ICT Meets Schools; Differentiation, Complexity and Adaptability: Journal of Education Administration, 45(1), 8-32. http//www Emeraldinsight0957-8223 Htm.
Vasja, V.& Dusan, L. (2007). Characteristics and Impacts of ICT Investments; Receptions
Some lessons among Managers. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 107(4)
Wahlstrom, K., & Louis, K. (2008). How Teachers Experience Principal Leadership: The Role Of Professional Community, Trust, Efficacy, and Shared Responsibility. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 458–495.
Wagner, D.,Day,B.,James,T.&Kozma,R. (2005). Monitoring and Evaluation of ICT in Education Projects: A Handbook for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: infoDev/World Bank. http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.9.htm.
Wanjala M., Khaemba E.N., & Mukwa, C. (2011). Significant factors in professional staff development for the implementation of ICT education in secondary schools: A case of schools in Bungoma District. Kenya International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. 1(1), 30-42.
Wang, Q., & Woo, H. L. (2007). Systematic Planning for ICT Integration in Topic Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 10(1), 148-156
Yee, D. L. (2000). Images of school principals’ information and technology leadership. Technology Pedagogy and Education, 9(3), 287-302.
Yildirim, S. (2007). Current Utilization of ICT in Turkish Basic Education Schools: A Review of Teacher's ICT Use and Barriers to Integration. International Journal of Instructional Media, 2(34), 171-86.
Yuksel, G., Sonner, Y., & Zahide, Y. (2009). Main Barriers and Possible Enablers of ICTs Integration into Pre-service Teacher Education Programme. Educational Technology and Socienty,12(1)193-204.