Moderating Effect of Participatory Management on the Relationship between Union Management Relations and Collective Bargaining Process in Public Universities in Kenya

  • Luka Y. Kuto School of Business and Economics, Moi University
  • J. K. Kwonyike School of Business and Economics, Moi University
  • L. S. Mulongo School of Business and Economics, Moi University
Keywords: Union Management Relations, participatory management, Collective Bargaining Process and public universities


The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Union Management Relations (UMR) on collective bargaining process (CBP) and the moderating effect of participatory management (PM) on the relationship between UMR and CBP in public universities in Kenya. The study was anchored on Dunlop’s Systems theory of industrial relations and adopted pragmatic research paradigm, mixed methods approach and sequential explanatory research design. The target population of the study was 1462 members and officials of KUSU comprising 1087 from Moi University and 375 from Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology and eight key informants, four from each university. A sample of 314 respondents was obtained using Yamane formula. Quantitative data was collected through structured questionnaires from a sample of 314 respondents selected randomly from each stratum while qualitative data was collected using interview schedule from 8 key informants four from each university. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Inferential statistics were analyzed using correlation and hierarchical regression. The correlation results indicated that UMR positively and significantly correlates with CBP(r=0.690, p=000). The regression results indicated that Union management relations (β=0.204, p<0.05) has a positive and significant influence on collective bargaining process. Participatory management negatively and in significantly moderated the relationship between UMR and collective bargaining process (β= -0.996, p>0.05). The study concludes that UMR influences collective bargaining process. The study recommends that for public universities to have effective collective bargaining process, they should utilize UMR by encouraging cooperation between unions and management. In this study, UMR and participatory management accounted for 58.5% of the variation in collective bargaining process. The study has therefore; extended literature by indicating that participatory management does not moderate the relationship between UMR and CBP. This means that other factors not in this study such as the effect of technology, economics and market context on CBP should be considered in future studies for more insight and knowledge in Kenya and beyond.


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How to Cite
Kuto, L., Kwonyike, J., & Mulongo, L. (2021, January 15). Moderating Effect of Participatory Management on the Relationship between Union Management Relations and Collective Bargaining Process in Public Universities in Kenya. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 6(2), Pg 11-23. Retrieved from