The Effect of Upgrading Indigenous Goat Breeds with German Alpine on Milk Yields at Manyatta Division of Embu County
Crossbreeding between exotic improved goats and indigenous breeds has brought about genetic improvement resulting in a faster growth rate and more milk production. A study was carried out with the objectives of demonstrating the milk production in F1, F2, F3, and F4 cross-bred goats and to determine the breeding level that is suitable for milk production at the farm level at Manyatta division, Embu County. Farm records from 24 farmers, distributed into four dairy goats keeping groups (blocks) on milk production was collected from 81 goats of F1, F2, F3, and F4 generations. The average flock size was 8.8 goats per farmer but ranged between 4-20 goats. A large proportion of 90.7% of the respondents kept goats for milk production. Milk yield data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, analysis of variance, and mean separated using least significant difference. Standard management practices were evident with little variation in feeding, health management, and other husbandry practices between farmer groups. The average milk production was 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, and 5.9 litres for F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. The mean milk yield differed significantly between different filial generations and increased with upgrading. Filial generations and blocks were significant, hence different mean milk production in each filial. Factors such as filial age at first kidding and filial age had no significant influence/effect on milk production. There were no interactions between blocks and filial generation. This meant that the blocks and filial generation are independent of each other. Goats at F4 generation of breeding performed better in milk production and lactation length than those in F1, F2, and F3 and therefore are recommended as the most suitable filial for milk production in Manyatta, Embu County.
Ahuja C.O and van Houston H (1998), Goat development in East Africa-practical experiences and the way forward.
Ahuya, C.O, Okeyo, A.M., Mosi, RO (2003). Growth survival and milk production performance of Toggenburg and their crosses to East Africa and Galla goat breeds in the Eastern slopes of Mount Kenya. Paper presented at LPP International workshop on small ruminant research and dissemination on 3rd -7th March at Embu, Kenya.
Ayalew W, King J M, Bruns E & Rischkowsky B (2003). Economic evaluation of Smallholder subsistence livestock production: lessons from an Ethiopian goat development program. Journal of Ecological Economics 45: 473 – 485.
Crepaldi P, Corti M, & Cicogna M, (1999). Factors affecting milk production and prolificacy of Alpine goats in Lombardy (Italy), Small Ruminant Research Volume 32, Pages 83-88.
Dairy Goat Association of Kenya (1998). Monitoring and Evaluation report.
Department of Livestock Production (2007/2008). Embu District Annual Livestock Production report.
Devendra, C & Mcleroy, GB (1982). Goat and sheep production in the tropics, pp. 132.
Gichohi C.M (1998). Overview of goat industry in Kenya-strategies and the way forward, in Ahuya C.O and Van Houston H. (1998). Goat Development in East Africa: - practical experiences and the way forward. Meru, Kenya.
Hetherington, L (1996). All about goats. Farming Press Ltd. Norwich, pp. 436.
James and Carles, (1996) in Ahuya C O, Okeyo A.M and Murithi F.M (2005). Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production system in the Eastern highlands of Kenya.
KARI (2005), KARI Embu Research Centre Annual report.
Kosgey I.S (2004). Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University.
Mwangi, MJ (1997), in CO, Ahuja and AM, Okeyo 2004, Sustainable genetic improvement of goat meat and milk production in Kenya: A case study of the Meru and Tharaka Nithi Dairy and
Animal Health care community-based Breeding program, pp. 6-7.
Nimbkar C., Kandasamy, N (2011). Animal breeding in India – a time for reflection and action. J. of Animal breeding and genetics 128(3): 161 – 162.
Omore, A (1998). Productivity of cattle on smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya.
Rewe T.O, Indetie D., Ojango J.M.K, and Kahi A.K (2006). Economic values for production and functional traits and assessment of their influence on genetic improvement in Boran cattle in Kenya. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 123: 23 – 36
Ruvuna F., Cartwright, T.C, Blackburn, H., Okeyo, M. and Chema, S (1988). Gestation length, birth weight, and growing weight of purebred indigenous goat and their crosses in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science 111(2):363-368.
Špehar, M., Mulc, D., Barać, Z., Mioč, B., and Kasap, A (2019). Estimation of genetic parameters for dairy traits using repeatability animal models based on test-day data for Alpine goat in Croatia. Mljekarstvo/Dairy, 69(4).
Simm, G., Conington, J, Bishop, S.C, Dwyer, C.M, and Pattinson, S (1996). Genetic selection for extensive conditions. Applied Anim. Behav. Sci. 49:47 -59.