Effects of Perceived Stigma on Psychological Wellness and Interpersonal Relationships among Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Ruiru, Kiambu County, Kenya

  • Brenda W. Gutu Department of Psychology, University of Nairobi
  • Michael M. Ndurumo Department of Psychology, University of Nairobi
  • Priscilla W. Kariuki Department of Psychology, University of Nairobi
Keywords: Perceived Stigma, Psychological Wellness, HIV/AIDS Affected Adolescents

Abstract

Approximately 2.1 million adolescents in the world are HIV positive with 15% of the HIV-infected females are considered to be young women aged 15 to 24 years. Eighty per cent of them live in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the most predominant place for female between 15 to 19 (UNAIDS, 2014). The UNAIDS Gap Report states that there is a gap in the provision of psychological services addressing stigma among other reproductive health needs among adolescent girls as they prepare for adulthood (UNAIDS, 2014). The study sought to determine the effects of Perceived Stigma towards HIV/AIDS on psychological wellness among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Ruiru Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya. The study used a quantitative research design using the survey method of data collection. Three questionnaires were adopted to assess the three variables. Study participants were recruited from among adolescents in long-term follow-up in the five HIV Comprehensive Care Centres in Ruiru Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 75 adolescents between 12-19 years. Regression analysis results revealed perceived stigma to be a significant predictor of psychological wellness, t = -3.293, p = 0.020.

References

Berger, B., Ferrans, C., & Lashley, F. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: Psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Research in Nursing & Health, 24(6), 518-529. doi: 10.1002/nur.10011

Bunn, J. Y., Solomon, S. E., Miller, C., & Forehand, R. (2007). Measurement of Stigma in People with HIV: A Reexamination of the HIV Stigma Scale. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(3), 198-208. doi:10.1521/aeap.2007.19.3.198

Colombini, M., Mutemwa, R., Kivunaga, J., Stackpool Moore, L., & Mayhew, S. (2014). Experiences of stigma among women living with HIV attending sexual and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1). doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-412

Fife, B. L., & Wright, E. R. (January 01, 2000). The Dimensionality of Stigma: a Comparison of its Impact on the Self of Persons with HIV/AIDS and Cancer. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 1, 50-67

Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item-response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365.

Global, F. (2017). Stigma and Discrimination.Healthpolicyproject.com. Retrieved 4 November 2017, from http://www.healthpolicyproject.com/index.cfm?id=topics-Stigma

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall

Hilbert, R., Jones, E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A., Markus, H., Miller, D., & Scott, R. (1985). Social Stigma: The Psychology of Marked Relationships. Contemporary Sociology, 14(3), 401.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2071381

Kamau, M. N. (2012). Aids Stigma and Discrimination in Public Schools: A Case Study Of Hiv-Positive Children In Kenya. The University of Western Ontario.Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/2015 – 2018/2019 (2014)
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009.

Link, B., Cullen, F., Struening, E., Shrout, P., & Dohrenwend, B. (1989). A Modified Labeling Theory Approach to Mental Disorders: An Empirical Assessment. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 400.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095613

Link, B. G., Mirotznik, J., & Cullen, F. T. (January 01, 1991). The Effectiveness of Stigma Coping Orientations: Can Negative Consequences of Mental Illness Labeling be avoided? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 3, 302-20.

Link, B., Struening, E., Rahav, M., Phelan, J., & Nuttbrock, L. (1997). On Stigma and Its Consequences: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Men with Dual Diagnoses of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(2), 177.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2955424

Lundgren-Nilsson, A. Jonsdottir, I., Ahlborg, G., & Tennant, A. (2013). Construct Validity of the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWBI) in a Sample of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Stress-related Exhaustion: a Rasch Analysis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11(1), 2.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-11-2

Luoma, J., Twohig, M., Waltz, T., Hayes, S., Roget, N., Padilla, M., & Fisher, G. (2007). An Investigation of Stigma in Individuals Receiving Treatment for Substance Abuse.Addictive Behaviors, 32(7), 1331-1346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.09.008

Mahajan, A., Sayles, J., Patel, V., Remien, R., Sawires, S., & Ortiz, D. et al. (2008). Stigma in the HIV/AIDS Epidemic: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for the Way Forward.AIDS,22(Suppl2), S57S65.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000327438.13291.62

Odhiambo, J. (2013). Factors influencing anti-retroviral therapy adherence of HIV-positive adolescents in Nairobi, Kenya: a qualitative study (Post Graduate Diploma). University of Nairobi.

Sawyer, S., Azzopardi, P., Wickremarathne, D., & Patton, G. (2018). The age of adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2(3), 223-228. doi: 10.1016/s2352-4642(18)30022-1

Siegel, K., & Krauss, B. (1991). Living with HIV Infection: Adaptive Tasks of Seropositive Gay Men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(1), 17.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136797

UNAIDS. (2014). The Gap Report. (2018) Retrieved from http://files.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2014/UNAIDS_Gap_report_en.pdf
(2016). Retrieved 3 April 2016, from International Center for Research on Women (ICRW, 2005) 'HIV-related Stigma across Contexts: Common at its Core' - See more at http://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-issues/stigma-discrimination#sthash.bFcnlR82.dpuf

Kiambu County HIV & AIDS Strategic Plan (2015/2016-2018/2019). Re-Orienting HIV & AIDS Control in a Devolved System of Government.
Published
2019-09-18
How to Cite
Gutu, B., Ndurumo, M., & Kariuki, P. (2019, September 18). Effects of Perceived Stigma on Psychological Wellness and Interpersonal Relationships among Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Ruiru, Kiambu County, Kenya. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 5(2), Pg 318-330. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/379
Section
Articles