Influence of Adolescent Gender on Parenting Styles, Autonomy and Self- Esteem among Kenyan Secondary School Students in Wareng Sub-County; Uasin Gishu County
Parenting style refers to techniques and standards that parents utilize in child rearing. These have been cited to have brought conflict between young people and their parents on values, ethical principles, and issues of morality. This has been reported in almost all cultures, and hence justification for this study. The study was done in Wareng district, Uasin Gishu county. The specific objective is the influence of gender on parenting, autonomy and self- esteem. Population target was 23027 adolescents. A sample of 394 was taken from 10 secondary schools through stratified random sampling, followed by Cochran’s formula. The researcher employed a correlational research design with a positivism paradigm. This research was based on Carl Rogers’ Self Theory and Adult Attachment Theory by Bowlby, where both theories were used to enrich the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data and scored on a five-point Likert scale and a three-point scale. To validate the research instruments, the researcher used expert judgment and for the reliability, a pilot study carried out which gave a correlation coefficient of 0.84. Null hypotheses used were tested at 95% confidence level. Data analysis was done effectively using SPSS, focusing on the mean, standard deviation, a correlation analysis and ANOVA. The study revealed female adolescents being autonomous and male adolescents had good self-esteem. The study information might benefit society, and specifically parents who have a direct influence on adolescent autonomy and self-esteem. The study recommended that parents should adopt parenting styles involving adolescents in decision making and problem solving to enhance their autonomy and self-esteem.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C. and Razavieh, A. (1996). Introduction to Research in Education. USA: Holt, Renehart & Winston.Inc.
Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, Vol.67, 3296-3319.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of early adolescence Vol.11, 56-95.
Casey, M. B, Nuttall, R. L. & Pezaris, E. (2001). Spatial mechanical reasoning skill versus mathematics self-confidence as mediators of gender differences on mathematics subsets using cross-national gender based items. Research in mathematics education Vol. 32, 28-57.
Chao, R. K. (2001). Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese, Americans and European Americans.ChildDevelopment, Vol. 72, 1832-1843.
Dornbush, S. M. and Brown, M. J. (1992). The relation of parenting styles to adolescent Self esteem and cognition. Child Development, 64 Vol., 211-223.
Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York: Gullford Press.
Kabiru, M. and Njenga, A. (2009). General Psychology and Personality Development. Focus Publishers; Nairobi.
Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research Methodology: methods and Techniques (3rd Edition), Wishwa Prakashan-New Dheli, INDIA.
Lamborn, S.D. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescent from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful families. Child development, Vol. 62, 1049 – 1065.
Lipka, R. P., and Brinthaupt, T. M. (2006). Understanding early adolescent identity: An introduction. Middle State University, New York.
Maccoby, E. E. and Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.); Hand book of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization personality and social development: New York, Willey.
Martinez, I, Garcia J.F. and Yubero S. (2007). Parenting styles and adolescents in Brazil. Psychological reports, 100, 731-745
Melgosa, J. (2003). To Adolescents and parents. New lifestyle. Graficas Mar- car, S.A / Uses, 95/ E-28043 Madrid Spain.
Mugenda, O. M. and Mugenda, A. G. (2006). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies. (ACTS).
Resnick, M., Bearman, P., Blum, R., Bauman, K., Harris, K, Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L., Udry, J. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278,823-832.
Steinberg, L (1999). Adolescence (5th Ed.) Boston: McGraw-Hill,p.276
Steinberg, L. D. (1993). Adolescence (3rd ed.). New York: MCGraw. Hill.
Thompson, G. G. (2010). Child Psychology. Youth trends in Psychological Adjustment: Surjeets publications. Dheli –India.