Growth and Yield Models for Plantation-Grown Cupressus lusitanica for Central Kenya

  • Charles N. Kuria Department of Forestry and Wood Science, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125 – 00217, Eldoret
  • Balozi B. Kirongo Department of Forestry and Wood Science, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125 – 00217, Eldoret
  • Wilson Kipkore Department of Forestry and Wood Science, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125 – 00217, Eldoret
Keywords: Sustainable forest management, growth and yield modeling, Silviculture, Forest inventory.

Abstract

The demand for timber in Kenya is increasing. However, forest managers do not have an effective tool for estimating the growth and yield of the resource against the demand to enable sustainable management. In this study, a method for estimating growth and yield of Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Central Kenya based on a statistical model that directly relates volume to other parameters such as diameter and total height is considered. The study developed a set of growth models based on height against age, height against diameter at breast height (dbh) as well as the dhb against age. Tree height and age showed exponential relationship of the form Ht = b*Age^c, while the height and dbh was developed using models of the form Ht = a + b(dbh)^c and dbh was related to the age by equation of the form dbh = a*(Age)^b. The relationship between volume and dbh and height was fully fitted with third order differential equation of cubic function. At dbh lower than 0.2 m the volume increased at slower rate, followed by an exponential increase in volume between dbh 0.2 to 0.45m and then a plateau thereafter. Using diameter at breast height and height, the volume equation was developed as; V = -0.1247+ 0.02233*dbh2-0.0233*H+ 0.0012*H2, which showed higher model fit to volume than the model currently in use, with the latter overestimating volumes at extreme high or low values but underestimated most intermediate volumes. The developed models are recommended for integration into forest information systems for Cypress plantations management in Central Kenya

References

Abernethy, K., Maisels, F. and White, L.J.T. (2016). Environmental issues in central Africa. Annual Review in Environmental Resources. 41: 1–33.

Alder, D. (1979). A Distance-Independent Tree Model for Exotic Conifer Plantations in East Africa. Forest Science, Vol.25, No.1. 59-71.

Berrocal, A., Baeza, J., Rodríguez, J., Espinosa, M. and Freer, J. (2004). Effect of tree age on variation of Pinus radiata D. Don chemical composition. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society. 49: 251-256.

Boyden, S., Binkley, D. and Shepperd, W. (2005). Spatial and temporal patterns in structure, regeneration, and mortality of an old-growth ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range. Forest Ecology and Management. 219: 43-55.

Cheboiwo, J.K., Mugambe, R.O., Mbinga, J. and Mutiso, F. (2015). Potential Growth Yields and Socio-economic Benefits of Four Indigenous Species for Restoration of Moist Forests, Mau Kenya. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 5 (6):72-84.

Domec, J.C. and Gartner, B.L. (2003). Relationship between growth rates and xylem hydraulic characteristics in young, mature and old‐growth ponderosa pine trees. Plant, Cell & Environment. 26: 471-483.

Ernst, C., Gullick, R. and Nixon, K. (2017). Conserving forests to protect water. Opflow. 40: 1-7.

FAO. (2003). Forestry Outlook Study for Africa. Regional Report – Opportunities and Challenges towards 2020. FAO Forestry Paper 141.

FAO. (2010). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FAO Forestry Paper 163) (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization).

FAOSTAT. (2014). The FAO online statistical database for Forestry products. FAO, Rome.

Hess, P. (2008). Natural Resource Management Project (NRM) – Field Instruction for the Forest Plantation Inventory in Kenya. KFS/DFS/WB, Nairobi.

Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., De Sy, V., De Fries, R.S., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., Angelsen, A. and Romijn, E. (2017). An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters. 12: p.044009.

Kagombe, J.K. and Gitonga, J. (2005) Plantation Establishment in Kenya: The Shamba System Case Study. Kenya Forestry Working Group., Nairobi.

Keesstra, S., Nunes, J., Novara, A., Finger, D., Avelar, D., Kalantari, Z. and Cerdà, A. (2018). The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services. Science of the Total Environment. 610: 997-1009.

Kenya Forest Service (KFS) (2009). A Guide to on-farm Eucalyptus Growing in Kenya. KFS. Pp 29.

Kenya Forest service (KFS) (2011). 2010/2011 Annual Report. KFS. Pp 76.

Kenya Forest Service (KFS) (2017). KFS Strategic Plan 2017 – 2022. KFS. Pp 68

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) (2010). The 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census. Nairobi, KNBS.

Kirongo, B.B. (2000) Modelling Growth Responses of Juvenile Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) Clones Subjected to Different Weed Competition Levels in Canterbury, New Zealand. PhD Thesis. University of Canterbury 2000.

Mathu, W. (2011). Forest Plantations and Woodlots in Kenya. African Forest Forum Working Paper Series Vol. 1 Issue 13. African Forest Forum, Nairobi.

Mathu, W.J.K. (1983) Growth, Yield and Silvicultural Management of Exotic Timber Species in Kenya. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia 1983.

Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) (2006). Farm Management Handbook of Kenya Vol. II 2nd Edition. Part B Central Kenya, Subpart B2 Central Province. MoA & GTZ, Nairobi.

Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) (1994). Kenya Forestry MasterPlan 1995-2020. MENR, Nairobi.

Mogoi, J., Obonyo, E., Ongugo, P., Oeba, V. and Mwangi, E. (2012). Communities, property rights and forest decentralisation in Kenya: Early lessons from participatory forestry management. Conservation and Society. 10: 182-194.

Mowrer, H.T. (1989). The Effect of Forest Simulation Model Complexity on Estimate Precision. In: H.E. Burkhart, H.M. Rauscher and K. Johan (Eds). Artificial Intelligence and Growth Models for Forest Management Decisions. Publications FWS-1-89, School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Mowrer, H.T. and Frayer, W.E. (1986). Variance propagation in growth and yield projections. Canadian Journal of Forest Research – Revue Canadienne De Reserche Forestiere 16:1196-1200. DOI:10.1139/x86 – 213.

Naughton-Treves, L., Holland, M.B. and Brandon, K. (2015). The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environmental Resources. 30: 219-252.

Ngugi, M.R., Mason, E.G. and Whyte, G.D. (1998). New Growth Models for Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula in Kenya. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 12(3):524-541.

Pereira-Miguel, E., Rezende, A.V., Assis Leal, F., Trondoli Matricardi, E.A., Imana Ensinas, J.M. and Nunes Miranda, J.F. (2017a). Floristic, structural, and allometric equations to estimate arboreal volume and biomass in a cerradão site. Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 38: 45-52.

Pereira-Miguel, E., Rezende, A.V., Pereira, R.S., Brito de Azevedo, G., Menez Mota, F.C., Nogueira de Souza, Á. and Santos Joaquim, M. (2017b). Modeling and prediction of volume and aereal biomass of the tree vegetation in a Cerradão area of Central Brazil. Interciencia, 42: 34-43.

Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Schultze, G. and Bielak, K. (2013). Change of forest stand dynamics in Europe. Facts from long-term observational plots and their relevance for forest ecology and management. Forest Ecol. Manage. (2013) http://dx.doi.org/110.1016/j.foreco.2013.07.050

Pukkala, T. and Pohjonen, V. (1993). Yield of Cupressus lusitanica in Ethiopia. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 59: 57-73.

Siry, J.P., Cubbage, F.W. and Ahmed, M.R. (2005). Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities. Forest policy and Economics. 7: 551-561.

Smith, J.L. and Burkhart, H.E. (1984). A simulation study assessing the effect of sampling for predictor variable values on estimates of yield. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14(3): 326 – 330.

Spiecker, H., Mielikainen, K., Kohl, M. and Skovsgaard, J.P. (1996). Conclusions and Summary. In: Spiecker, H., Mielikainen, K., Kohl, M. and Skovsgaard, J.P. (eds.) Growth trends in European forests – Studies from 12 countries. European Forest Institute Research Report 5. Springer-Verlag Berlin. 372p.

Stephens, S.L. and Gill, S.J. (2005). Forest structure and mortality in an old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in north-western Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 205: 15-28.

Subasinghe, S.M.C.U.P. (2008) Growth models and their use in plantation forestry. Research Report. University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

Summit, E. (1992). Agenda 21. The United Nations programme for action from Rio.

Tennent, R.B. (1990). Forest Plantation and Management Planning Kenya: Growth Modelling, Volume and Taper Function Construction. MNR/FAO, Nairobi. 54p.

Teshome, T. and Petty, J.A. (2000). Site index equation for Cupressus lusitanica stands in Munessa forest, Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management. 126: 339-347.

Tewari, V.P. (2008) On the use of yield and growth models in forestry applications. Research Paper, Silviculture Division, Arid Forest Research Institute. Jodhpur.

Vanclay, J.K. (2009). A stand growth model for cypress pine. In: J.W. Leech, R.E. McMurtrie, P.W. West, R.D. Spencer and B.M. Spencer (eds) Modelling Trees, Stands and Forests. Proceedings of a Workshop in August 1985 at the University of Melbourne. School of Forestry, University of Melbourne, Bulletin No. 5. P. 310-332.

Varner, J.M. and Kush, J.S. (2004). Remanat old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas and forests of the southeastern USA: Status and threats. Natural Areas Journal. 24: 141-149.

Vospernik, S. (2017). Possibilities and limitations of individual-tree growth models – A review on model evaluations. Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Volume 68 Issue 2: 103-112.

Waldron, K., Ruel, J.C. and Gauthier, S. (2013). Forest structural attributes after windthrow and consequences of salvage logging. Forest Ecology and Management. 289: 28-37.

Wanene, A.G. and Wachiori, P. (1975). Technical Note No. 144. Variable Density Yield Tables for the Cypresses of the Cupressus lusitanica Group in Kenya. Forest Department, Nairobi.

Watt, M.S., Clinton, P.W., Coker, G., Davis, M.R., Simcock, R., Parfitt, R.L. and Dando, J. (2008). Modelling the influence of environment and stand characteristics on basic density and modulus of elasticity for young Pinus radiata and Cupressus lusitanica. Forest ecology and management, 255(3-4), pp.1023-1033.

Weiskittel, A.R., Hann, D.W., Kershaw, J.A. and Vanclay, J.K. (2011). Forest Growth and Yield Modelling, 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Chicester.

Zar, J.H. (2010). Biostatistical Analysis, 5th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Published
2019-09-17
How to Cite
Kuria, C., Kirongo, B., & Kipkore, W. (2019, September 17). Growth and Yield Models for Plantation-Grown Cupressus lusitanica for Central Kenya. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 5(2), Pg 34-58. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/351
Section
Articles