Mycotoxin Challenge: Special Focus on Livestock Production

  • H.A. Rachuonyo Department of Animal Science, University of Eldoret P.O. BOX 1125 Eldoret, Kenya
  • J.O. Ochuodho Department of Seed, Crop and Horticultural Sciences, University of Eldoret P.O. BOX 1125 Eldoret, Kenya

Abstract

The feed supply chain is a priority for all livestock production systems.  Feed quantity and safety are intimately linked; the origin of feedstuffs, processing, handling and storage, as well as other factors related to market, can affect both quality and safety of feed at different levels.  Among the most important safety and security risks for the feed industry and the feed supply chain are mycotoxins, presenting high risk with enormous consequences on health, economies and international trade.  The possibility of toxin carry-over, feed contamination also present a hazard for the safety of food of animal origin and contribute to mycotoxin intake in humans.  Exposure of animals to mycotoxins is of particular concern because of the detrimental additive and/or synergic effects of co-contamination.  Generally, environmental conditions such as excessive moisture, temperature extremes, humidity, drought conditions, insect damage, crop systems and agronomic practices can cause stress and predispose plants in the field to mold and determine the severity of mycotoxin contamination.  The complexity of mycotoxin interactions varies according to animal species, level and type of mycotoxin contamination and the duration of exposure. Despite efforts to control fungal contamination, extensive mycotoxin contamination has been reported in both developing and developed countries. Risks of these toxins in animal feeds can be controlled in either pre- or post-harvest stages of feed processing.  Main strategies for prevention at pre-harvest stage have been noted to include proper agronomic practices, use of resistant varieties, application of non-toxigenic fungal strains, minimizing both insect and mechanical damage; while post-harvest approaches involve drying and cleaning of commodities, storage in facilities that provide protection from excessive moisture, use of pesticides and other appropriate antifungal agents and protection from rodents and insects.  At policy level, regulatory authorities need to take steps that address issue of aflatoxin contamination to safeguard consumers and preserve livestock, especially in the poultry industry as well as the socio-economic benefits. Additionally, quality control strategies should be implemented and efforts to safeguard food sources and utilization enhanced for security, especially in rural areas of developing countries. Mycotoxin reduction requires a multifaceted approach, including farmers, government agencies, food processors and scientists

References

Ashiq, S. 2015. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed: Pakistan Perspective. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Vol.14:159–175.

Atanda, O., Makun, H.A., Ogara, I.M., Edema, M., Idahor, K.O., Eshiett, M.E., Oluwabamiwo, B.F. 2013. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Nigerian foods and feeds. In: Makun H.A., (Ed.), Mycotoxin and food safety in developing countries. Croatia: In Tech. p 3–38.

Bryden, W.L. 2009. Mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses: significance, occurrence and mitigation in the food chain. In: Ballantyne, B., Marrs, T., Syversen, T. (Eds.), General and Applied Toxicology, third ed. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp. 3529–3553.

Bryden, W.L. 2012. Mycotoxin contamination of the feed supply chain: Implications for animal productivity and feed security. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 173:134–158.

Bryden, W.L., Cumming, R.B., Lloyd, A.B. 1980. Sex and strain responses to aflatoxin B1 in the chicken. Avian Path. 9, 539–550.

Burditt, S.J., Hagler, W.M., Hamilton, P.B. 1983. Survey of molds and mycotoxins for their ability to cause feed refusal in chickens. Poult. Sci. 62, 2187–2191.

Christensen, C.M. 1974. Storage of Cereal Grains and Products, second ed. Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem., St. Paul, Minnesota.

Coker, R.D. 1997. Mycotoxin and their control: constraints and opportunities. NRI Bulletin 73 Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute, 74.

Cole, R.J. (Ed.), 1986. Modern Methods in the Analysis and Structural Elucidation of Mycotoxins. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology; Mycotoxins and human health. 1989. Mycotoxins economic and health risks, 116: 28-35, CAST, Ames.

Fink-Gremmels, J. 2008. Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: a review. Food Addit.Contam. 25, 172–180.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1996. "Rome Declaration on Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action". Accessed 25 May, 2018.

Fung, F. and Clark, R.F. 2004. Health effects of mycotoxins: a toxicological overview. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(2):217–34.

Hamilton, P.B. 1982. Mycotoxins and farm animals. Refuah Vet. 39, 17–45.

Jones, F.T., Genter, M.B., Hagler, W.M., Hansen, J.A., Mowrey, B.A., Poore, M.H. & Whitlow, L.W. 1994. Understanding and coping with effects of mycotoxins in livestock feed and forage. North Carolina State University, Raleigh,N.C.:

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. p 1–14.
Lewis, L., Onsongo, M., Njapau, H., Rogers, H.S., Luber, G., Kieszak, S., Nyamongo, J., Backer, L., Dahiye, A.M., Misore, A., Decoct, K. & Rubin, C. 2005. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in Eastern and Central Kenya. Environ Health Perspect. 113:1763–67.
Mati´c, J., Mandi´c, A., Mastilovi´c, J., Miˇsan, A., Beljkaˇs, B. &Milovanovi´c, I. 2008. Contaminations of raw materials and food products with mycotoxins in Serbia. Food Feed Res 35(2):65–70.
Matumba, L., Monjerezi, M., Biswick, T., Mwatseteza, J., Makumba, W.,Kamangira, D. &Mtukuso, A. 2014. A survey of the incidence and level of aflatoxin contamination in a range of locally and imported processed foods on Malawian retail market. Food Control 39:87–91.
Miller, J.D., 1998. Global significance of mycotoxins. In: Miraglia, M., van Egmond, H., Brera, C., Gilbert, J. (Eds.), Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins—Developments in Chemistry, Toxicology and Food Safety. Alaken Inc, Ford Collins, CO, pp. 3–15.
Moretti, A. 2013. Molecular biodiversity of mycotoxigenic fungi that threaten food safety. International Journal Food Microbiology. v.167, p.57-66, 2013.
Okitoi, L.O., Ondwasy, H.O., Obali, M.P. &Murekefu, F. 2007. Gender issues in poultry production in rural households of Western Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 19, Article #17. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/2/okit19017.htm.
Shephard, G.S. 2008. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries. Food Addit. Contam 25(2):146–51.
Shier, W.T., Abbas, H.K., Wearer, M.A., Horn, B.W., 2005. The case for monitoring Aspergillus flavus aflatoxigenicity for food safety assessment in developing countries. In: Abbas, H.K. (Ed.), Aflatoxin and Food Safety. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 291–311.
Smith, E.E., Kubena, L.F., Braithwaite, R.B., Harvey, R.B., Phillips, T.D., &Reine, A.H. 1992. Toxicological evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 71:1136–44.
Smith, T.K. and Korosteleva, S.N. 2012. The significance of feedbornemycotoxins in ruminant nutrition. In: GONÇALEZ, E. et al. Mycotoxicoses in animals economically important. New York:Nova Science Publishers, 2012. Cap.2, p.35-66.
vanEgmond, H.P. 2013. Mycotoxins: risks, regulations and European cooperation. J Nat Sci, MaticaSrpska Novi Sad 125:7–20. DOI:10.2298/ZMSPN1325007V.
vanHeugten, E. 2001. Mycotoxins and other antinutritional factors in swine feed. In: Lewis, A.J., Southern, L.L. (Eds.), Swine Nutrition. , second ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Wicklow, D.T. 1995. The mycology of stored grain: an ecological perspective. In: Jayas, D.S., White, N.D.G., Muir, W.E. (Eds.), Stored-Grain Ecosystems. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp. 197–249.
Wild, C.P., 2007. Aflatoxin exposure in low and middle income countries: the critical interface of agriculture and health. Food Nutr. Bull. 28, S372–S380.
World Health Organization (WHO).2002. WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety: safer food for better health. Food Safety Programme 2002. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.
Published
2018-12-31
How to Cite
Rachuonyo, H., & Ochuodho, J. (2018, December 31). Mycotoxin Challenge: Special Focus on Livestock Production. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 4(4), pp 144-153. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/338
Section
Articles