Effect of Seed Size on Germination and Seedling Performance on Grafted Avocado
Avocado (Persea americana) producing areas in Kenya face constraints in generating sufficient propagation material. Lack of technical production skills has led to poor quality avocado seedlings. This research was carried out to determine the effect of avocado seed size on germination, growth and seedling development (using the local varieties as rootstock). A ratio of 5:2:2:1 (Topsoil: Compost: Coconut fiber: Gravel) of planting media was used under green house conditions. The effect of seed size on scion growth and development of avocado seedlings was determined. The experiment had a completely randomized design with three replications. Each replication had three plants and three seed sizes (Large, Medium and Small) were used. Germination percentage was determined. Quantitative data on plant height and stem diameter were recorded before grafting. Scions (Hass variety) that had 3 buds were used. Time to produce buds, bud length and growth vigor was measured. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using Genstat version 14.1 software. Mean separation was done by Duncan’s multiple range test. Significant differences were observed in height, stem diameter, bud length and vigour with the following %CV 14.1, 11.8, 37.4 and 24.0 respectively. The medium seeds had the highest germination percentage of 77.78 and small seeds had the least percentage of 33.33. The large sized seeds produced bigger girth which greatly contributed to quicker graft take. Buds from large sized seeds were more vigorous than those of medium and small seeds. In conclusion mass propagation of Hass avocado seedlings can be achieved using medium to large seeds due to quicker germination, growth and graft take
Debertin, D. L. (2012). Agricultural production economics (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Dittoh, S., Awuni, J., and Akuriba, M. (2013). Small pumps and the poor: A field survey in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Water International, 38(4), 449–464.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) (2009): Coping with a changing climate: consideration for adaption and mitigation in Agriculture. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) (1997). Kenya. Available at: www.fao.org
Fox, P. and Rockstrom, J. (2003). Supplemental irrigation for dry-spell mitigation of rainfed agriculture in the Sahel. Agricultural Water Management 1817, 1–22.
Gani, B. & Omonona, B. (2009). Resource use efficiency among small-scale irrigated maize producers in Northern Taraba State of Nigeria. J Hum Ecol, 28(2), 113-119.
Giles, D. (2011). Interpreting dummy variables in semi-logarithmic regression models: Exact distributional results. Econometrics Working Paper 1101 ISSN 1485 – 6441.
GOK (2014). Kenya Open Data Survey, 2014. Retrieved 14th May 2018 from https://www.opendata.go.ke
GOK (2015). Kenya integrated household budget survey (KIHBS) – basic report. Retrieved 10th May 2018 from www.knbs
GOK (Government of Kenya) (2010). Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (2010 – 2020). Retrieved from 14th May 2018 from: www.ascu.go.ke
Gorgess, H. & Naby, A. (2012). Using Restricted least squares method to estimate and analyze the Cobb-Douglas production function with application. Ibn Al-Haitham Journal for Pure and Apllied Sciences, 25(2):1-10.
Ike, P. & Ugwumba, C. (2011). Profitability of small-scale broiler production in Onitsha North local government area of Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(2), 106-109.
Karina, F. & Mwaniki, A. (2011). Irrigation agriculture in Kenya. Heinrich Boll Stiftung. Retrieved 10 February 2018 from: www.ke.boell.org
Keitany, S., Tarus, I. & Matheka, R. (2016). Contributions of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme towards the growth of Marigat town in Baringo, Kenya, 1963-2013. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, 3(6), 131-136.
Kim, C. & Schaible, G. (2000). Economic benefits resulting from irrigation water use: theory and an application to ground water use. Environmental and Resource Economics, 17, 73-87.
Malano, K. & Burton, N. (2011). Irrigation agriculture in Kenya. Impact of the economic stimulus programme and long-term prospects for food security in an era of climate change. Heinrich Boll Stiftung. Retrieved 10 February 2018 from: www.ke.boell.org
Mambala, F. (2007). Bunyala Rice irrigation scheme (Kenya): A case study of the Munaka outgrowers community based organisation. A report for Institute for Sustainable Commodities. Available at: www.iscom.nl
Miruri, R. & Wanjohi, J. (2017). Determinants of performance of irrigation projects: Case of Nthawa irrigation project of Mbeere North Sub-County, Embu County, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management, 2(1), 447-463.
Mutabazi, K., Senkondo, E., Mbilinyi, B., Tumbo, D., Mahoo, H. and Hatibu, N. (2005). Economics of rainwater harvesting for crop enterprises in semi-arid areas: the case of Makanya watershed in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. Economics, 285-297.
Namara, R., Horowitz, L., Nyamadi, B. and Barry, B. (2011). Irrigation development in Ghana: Past experiences, emerging opportunities, and future directions. GSSP Working Paper No. 0026. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
Nimoh, F., Tham-Agyekum, E. and Nyarko, P. (2012). Resource use efficiency in rice production: the case of Kpong irrigation project in the Dangme West County of Ghana. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(1):35-40.
Noordzij, M., Tripepi, G., Dekker, F., Zoccali, C., Tanck, M. and Jager, K. (2010). Sample size calculations: basic principles and common pitfalls. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 25: 1388-1393
O’Mahony, B., Dalrymple, J., Levin, E. & Greenland, S. (2016). The role of information communications technology in sustainable water management practice. Int. J. Sustain. Agric. Manag. Inform, 2, 79–92.
Origa, L. (2011). Effect of supplemental irrigation on growth, yield and economic returns of onion (Alium cepa) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Kibwezi County, Eastern Kenya (Master’s thesis, University of Nairobi). Retrieved 10th March from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke
Owen, D. (2018). Smart water and water megatrend management and mitigation. In Biswas, A.K. and Tortajada, C. (eds) Assessing global water megatrends. Springer: Singapore, pp. 87–104.
Owusu, V. (2016). The economics of small-scale private pump irrigation and agricultural productivity in Ghana. The Journal of Developing Areas, 50(1), 289-304.
Schoengold, K. and Zilberman, D. (2007). The economics of water, irrigation and Development. In Evenson, R. and Pingali, P. (eds) Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Elsevier, B.V.
Tan, C., Zhang, T. & Warner, J. (2009). Effect of four drip irrigation water levels on processing tomato yield and quality. 7th Annual Great Lakes Vegetable Working Group Conference, Canada.
Tirop, S. (2013, June 11). Bringing the sexy back to Agriculture. The Standard, p 13.
Valipour, M. (2015). Necessity of irrigated and rainfed agriculture in the world. Irrigat Drainage Sys Eng, S9: e001. doi:10.4172/2168-9768.S9-e001.
Zilberman, D., Sproul, T., Rajagopal, D., Sexton, S. and Hellegers, P. (2008). Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture. Water policy, 1(10):11-21