Assessment of Decision Making Skills among Adolescents from Rural and Urban Contexts in Kenya: A Comparative Study of Learners in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri and Nairobi Counties

  • Perminus Githui School of Education and Social Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
  • Johannes N. Njoka School of Education and Social Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
  • Margaret Mwenje School of Education and Social Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
Keywords: Decision making skills, adolescents, problem solving, reasoning, 21st Century skills

Abstract

Human beings are confronted by situations that require them to make decisions every day in their lives. The natural processes of adjustment to situations in life that human beings are part of demands acts of decision making. Decision making is hence a natural consequence of existence by human beings. The purpose of this study was to assess the decision making skills among adolescents from rural contexts and those from urban environments. The study was guided by the following objectives which was to; assess the status of decision making skills among adolescents from rural and urban contexts in Kenya, evaluate the variables that influence adolescents during decision making processes from rural and urban environments in Kenya and analyze the challenges that face adolescents while making decisions from rural and urban contexts in Kenya. Descriptive research design was used in this study. Social cognitive theory developed by Bandura guided the study. The target population comprised of adolescents selected from schools from Nyeri and Nairobi Counties. A sample of schools from the two counties was selected using Kothari’s sampling formula which gave 30 (10%) schools from both counties. The sampled schools were as follows; 2 boys’ schools from each county, 3 and 2 girls’, 4 and 17 co-educational schools from Nyeri and Nairobi Counties respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire administered to the sampled adolescents. The study used a sampling formula by Kathuri and Pals to determine the sample size which yielded 391 respondents. Analyzed data revealed that adolescents from urban areas had relatively better decision making skills compared to their counterparts from rural environments. The first hypothesis stated that there was no statistically significant difference in decision making abilities among adolescents from rural and urban contexts. To test this hypothesis, t-test was calculated which gave a level of significance .000 which was less than the p-value (.05). Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. It was concluded that the decision making skills among adolescents from rural and urban contexts was dissimilar. The second research hypothesis sought to establish whether there was any statistically significant difference in decision making skills between gender from rural and urban contexts. The results of data analysis presented revealed that the level of significance .163 was more than the p-value (.05). Therefore the null hypothesis was accepted. It was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in decision making skills among male and female adolescents. The study recommended that there is need to strengthen the process of nurturing decision making skills among adolescents in secondary schools in Kenya.

References

Agnes, M. & Laird, C. (Ed.) (2002). Webster’s New World Dictionary and Thesaurus, 2nd.New York: Hungry Minds, Inc.

Albert D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Peer influences on adolescent risk behavior. New York: Springer.

Arvai, J. L., Campbell, V., Baird, A., & Rivers, L. (2004). Teaching Students to Make Better Decisions about the Environment: Lessons from the Decision Sciences. The Journal of Environmental Education, 36(1), 33-44.

Beyth-Marom, R., Fischoff, B., Quadrel, M. J., & Furby, L. (1991). Teaching decision making to adolescents: A critical review. Teaching Decision Making to Adolescents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Billig, S. 2002. Philadelphia Freedom Schools Junior Leader evaluation. Denver, CO: RMC Research Corporation.

Billig, S. H., Meyer, S., & Hofschire, L. (2003). Evaluation of Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence demonstration site, the Hawaiian Studies Program at Waianae High School. Denver, CO: RMC

Blum, R., Beuhring, T., Shew, M, Bearinger, L., Sieving, R., and Resnick, M. 2000. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors. American Journal of Public Health 90:12, 1879-1884.

Boyd, B. L. 2001. Bringing leadership experiences to inner-city youth. Journal of Extension 29:4.

Britto, M.T., Tivorsak, T.L., & Slap, G.B. (2010). Adolescents’ needs for health care privacy. Pediatrics, 126(6), 1469-1476.

Byrnes, J., Miller, D., and Schafer, W. 1999. Gender differences in risk-taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 125:367-383.

Calderwood, & C. E. Zsambok, (Eds.), Decision making in action: Models and methods (pp. 3-

Chien, Y. C., Lin, C., & Worthley, J. (1996). Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making. Percept Mot Skills, 3 (1), 811-9.

Edelson, D. C. (2001). Learning-for-Use: A Framework for the Design of Technology- Supported Inquiry Activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(3),355-385.

Ersever, O. H. (1996). The Effect of Gaining Decision-Making Skills Program and Encounter Group Experience on the Decision-Making Styles of the University Students. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Ankara: Ankara University.

Fraenkel, J. & Wallen, N. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Higher Education.

Framework for 21st Century Learning. (2004). from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/

Framework for 21st Century Learning. (2004). from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/

Gardner, M., and Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology 41:625-635.

Gilligan, Carol (1982): In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press

Jarrett, C., Dadich, A., Robards, F., & Bennett, D. (2011). Adolescence is difficult, some kids are difficult: general practitioner perceptions of working with young people. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 17, 54-59.

Kang, M., Bernard, D., Booth, M., Quine, S., Alperstein, G., Usherwood, T., & Bennett, D. (2003). Access to primary health care for Australian young people: service provider perspectives. British Journal of General Practice, 53, 947-952.

Kathuri, J. N. & Pals, D. A. (1993). Introduction to educational research. Njoro: Egerton University Press.

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research methodology methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age International publisher.

Lehr, J. (2007). Democracy, scientific literacy and values in science education in the United States. Rotterdam: Sense Publishing.

Leipert, B., Leach, B., & Thurston, W. E. (2012). Rural women’s health. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Mann, L., Harmoni, R., & Power, C. (1989). Adolescent decision-making: the development of competence. Journal of Adolescence, 12, 265-278.

Mann, L., Harmoni, R., and C. Power. (1989). Adolescent decision-making: the development of competence. Journal of Adolescence 12, 265-278.

Mincemoyer, C. C., & Perkins, D. F. (2003). Assessing decision-making skills of youth. The Forum for Family and Consumer Issues (8)1.

NIMH. (2011). National Institute of Mental Health. Bulletin

O’Brien, L. (2009). The neurocognitive effects of sleep disruption in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 18(4), 813-823.

O’Brien, L. (2000). The neurocognitive effects of sleep disruption in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 18(4), 813-823.

Orasanu, J. & Connolly, T. (1993). The reinvention of decision making. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Riddell, S., Harris N., Smith, E. & Weedon, E. (2010). Dispute resolution in additional and special educational needs: Local authority perspectives. Journal of Education Policy. 25(1), 55-71.

Sannisto, T., & Kosunen, E. (2009). Promotion of adolescent sexual health in primary care: survey in Finnish health centers. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 14(1), 27-38.

Scvaneveldt, Y. D. & Adams, G. R. (1983). Adolescents and the decision making process. Theory Into Practice. 22(2), 98-104.

Stone, A. A., & Neale, J. M. (1984). New measure of daily coping: Development and preliminary results. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 892-906.

Tuinstra J., van Sonderen, F. L. P., Groothoff, J. W., van den Heuvel, W. J. A., & Post, D. (2000). Reliability, validity and structure of the Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire among adolescents in the Netherlands. Perspectives of Individual Difference, 28(2), 273–285.
Published
2018-12-31
How to Cite
Githui, P., Njoka, J., & Mwenje, M. (2018, December 31). Assessment of Decision Making Skills among Adolescents from Rural and Urban Contexts in Kenya: A Comparative Study of Learners in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri and Nairobi Counties. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 4(4), pp 227-238. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/328
Section
Articles