Quantification of All Trans-Lycopene, Cis-Lycopene and Β-Carotene from Watermelons Found in Zanzibar

  • Haji M. Khamis Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, P.O. BOX 1125 Eldoret
  • Lusweti J. Kituyi Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, P.O. BOX 1125 Eldoret
  • Haji M. Haji Department of Natural Science, The State University of Zanzibar (SUZA)
Keywords: All trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene, β-carotene, quantification, determination, nutrient, watermelon

Abstract

Red-fleshed watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) contain a high level of lycopene, and small amount of β-carotene which have been reported to have many important health benefits. However, very little is known on the quantity of all trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene and β-carotene found in watermelons grown in Zanzibar. The objective of this study was to quantify all trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene and β-carotene carried by watermelons available in Zanzibar Islands. Samples were collected from Mkokotoni area in Zanzibar, a representative of the Zanzibar Islands and extracted by using solvent system of hexane/acetone/ethyl acetate (4:2:1 v/v/v). The extracts were filtered and the lycopene layer separated from the filtrate, washed, dried by rotary evaporator and then dissolved in hexane. The concentrated hexane solution was then subjected to column chromatography on silica gel. The all trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene and β-carotene fractions were collected, dried by nitrogen gas and weighed. The dilute hexane solutions of all trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene and β-carotene were scanned using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results obtained showed that mass (in μg/g) of all trans-lycopene varied from 93 to 1929, cis-lycopene varied from 67 to 827 and β-carotene varied from 25 to 881. The fruit contains considerable amounts/quantities of food nutrients beneficial to human health.

References

Atessahin, A., Urk, G., Karahan, I., Yilmaz, S., Ceribasi, A. and Bulmus, O. (2006). Lycopene Prevents Adriamycin Induced and Testicular Toxicity in Rates. Journal of Science Direct Fertility and Sterility. 85: 1216 – 1222.

Barba, A.I.O., Hurtado, M.C., Sanchez-Mata, M.C., Ruiz, V.F. and Tejada, M.L. (2006). Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods: Application of a UV–VIS Detection-HPLC Method for a Rapid Determination of Lycopene and β-carotene in vegetables. Journal of Food Chemistry. 95(2): 328 – 336.

Boileau, T.W., Boileau, A.C. and Erdman, J.W. (2002). Bioavailability of all trans- and cis-Isomers of Lycopene. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood), 227(10): 914-917.

Caris-Veyrat, C. and Genard, M. (2008). How Does a Tomato Quality (Sugar, Acid and Nutritional Quality) Vary with Ripening Sage, Temperature and Irradiance. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 56(4): 1241 – 1250.

Chemat-Djennin, Z, Ferhat, M.A, Tomao, V. and Chemat, F. (2013). UV-VIS Absorption Spectrum of Lycopene: Carotenoid Extraction from Tomato Using a Green Solvent Resulting from Orange Processing Waste. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 13(2): 139-147.

Cheynier, V. (2005). Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81: 223-229.

Collins, J. K., Perkins-Viazic, P. and Robert, B.W. (2004). A New World of Watermelon. Agricultural Research Magazine, (December), 10 – 11.

Davis, A.R., Collins, J., Fish, W.W., Tadmor, Y., Webber III, C.I. and Perkins-Veazie (2007). Rapid Method for Total Carotenoid Detection in Canary Yellow-Fleshed Watermelon. Journal of Food Science. 72: 319-319.

During, A. and Harrison E.H. (2004). Intestinal Absorption and Metabolism of Caarotenoid: Insight from Cell Culture. Arch Biochem Biophys, 430(1), 77-88.

Gerster, H. (1997). The Potential Role of Lycopene for Human Health. Journal of American College of Nutrition. 16(2): 109-126.

Katherine, L.V. (2008). Extracted Conducting Affecting Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lycopene from Watermelon. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 99(16): 7835 – 7841.

Kun, Y., Lule, U.S. and Lin, D.X. (2006). Lycopene: Its Properties and Relationship to Human Health. Journal of Food Review International. 22(4): 309 – 333.

Mayeaux, M., Xu, Z., King, J.M. and Prinyawiwatkul, W. (2006). Effects of Cooking Conditions on the Lycopene Content in Tomatoes. Journal of Food Science. 71(8): 461 – 464.

Raloff, J. (2002). Watermelon Packs a Powerful Lycopene Punch. Agricultural Research Magazine 50(June), 12 – 13.

Shi, J. and Maguer, M. (2000). Lycopene in Tomatoes: Chemical and Physical Properties Affected by Food Processing. Journal of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 40: 1 – 42.

Takehara, M., Nishimura, M., Kuwa, T., Inoue, Y., Kitamura, C., Kumagai, T. and Honda, M. (2013). Characterization of (all-E)–Lycopene. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(1): 264-269.

Tan, B. (2006). Analytical and Preparative Chromatography of Tomato Paste Carotenoids. Journal Food Science. 53(3): 954 – 959.

Terlecki, K.; Chwil, P.; Sobstyl, J.; Sobstyl, P.; Kotuła, L. and Janusz, K.J. (2014). Genetically Engineered Rice. The Source of β-carotene. Modern Phytomorphology 6: 115, 1-1.

Tyman, J.H.P. (1997). The Chemistry of Some Natural Colourants. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, 20(F): 719-788.

Wer, Y., Zhang, T., Xu, G. and Chirotto, Y. (2001). Analytical and Preparative high-Speed Counter-current Chromatography for Separation of Lycopene from Crude Extract of Tomato Paste. Journal of Chromatography A. 929(1-2): 169 – 173.
Published
2018-12-29
How to Cite
Khamis, H., Kituyi, L., & Haji, H. (2018, December 29). Quantification of All Trans-Lycopene, Cis-Lycopene and Β-Carotene from Watermelons Found in Zanzibar. African Journal of Education,Science and Technology, 4(4), pp 1-9. Retrieved from http://ajest.info/index.php/ajest/article/view/308
Section
Articles