Livestock Waste Management in Kenya: A Futuristic Perspective
Livestock waste management remains a major global concern because of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, environmental safety and quality of crop and animal products. Livestock production is the largest source of atmospheric ammonia, accounting for over 40 % of the global inventory. Sources of wastes are production farms and slaughter/processing/packing plants. Objective of livestock waste management is to make best use of nutrients in manure while protecting natural resources from pollution for improved environmental quality and sustainability. When managed properly, manure can be a valuable resource for farmers especially in rural areas; providing nutrients for crops, generating income, improving nutrient use efficiency, among other benefits. However, if la nd is insufficient to use generated manure or if mismanaged, then pollution risks to water supplies and other ecosystem resources could result. Unmanaged waste could be breeding grounds for disease causing pathogens and vectors, generate odour, ruin aesthetic values, increase production costs and reduce farm product quality, among other dangers. Best management practices to reduce negative impacts include feed manipulation & feeding strategies, breeding for improved feed intake, as well as diligent management and use of improved technologies on handling, processing and disposal. Three main forms of manure are solid, liquid and slurry, each of which has its way of handling, management and disposal. Options for managing waste include composting, processing for sale, aerobic & anaerobic lagoon treatment, vegetative waterways, soakaway ponds, biogas production or direct land application. All these methods are practised with varying degrees of success in Kenya. Considering rapid population increase and subsequ ent land fragmentation, many farmers are constrained when it comes to available options. Determinant factors on choice include financial constraints, production systems in place, size of farm operations, compliance with local and international laws/regulations and standards, land availability, awareness of existing technologies, among others. This paper review and shares best practices and global trends for manure management in general, with Kenya‟s future in mind, to ensure improved environmental quality and economical usage. This will have both short and long term economic and environmental impact that benefits production system in the country and beyond.
Agriculture Canada. (1994). A survey of environmental policy instruments for the agriculture sector in selected O. E.C.D.
Batie, S.S. & Diebel. P.L. (1990). Key policy choices in groundwater quality management . Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 45(2), 194.
Beegle, D.B. & Lanyon. L.E. (1994). Nutrient management legislation in Pennsylvania Supplement . Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation. 49(2), 64.
Beier, A., Dressing, S. & Shuyler. L. (1994). A new approach to run -off - State Coastal nonpoint pollution control programs.
Supplement: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49 (2,. 72.
Bertrand, R. (1988). Manure management in Europe. Soils Branch, BC Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Abbotsford.
Brussard, W.& Grossman, M.R.. (1990). Legislation to abate pollution from manure: the Dutch approach. The North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation. 15 (1), p.88.
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. (2013). Animal/livestock feeding operations frequently asked questions.
Retrieved from http://www.colorado.gov/cs/Satellite/CDPHE-DEHS/CBON/1251588151450.
Committee for Delaware Manure Management Guidelines (CDMMG). (1989). Manure management for environmental protection.
Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Control and University of Delaware.
Conrad, J. & T eherani-Kronner, P. (1989). The politics of shit regulation of liquid manure application in North Rhine -Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Policy and Politics. 17(3), 241-254.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2001). Managing livestock, poultry, and horse waste to prevent contamination of
drinking water. Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin (EPA 916 -F-01-026). USA.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Animal feeding operations. Retrieved from http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=7 .
Export Processing Zones Authority (EPZA). (2005). Dairy industry in Kenya: Retrieved from http://www.epzakenya.com/UserFiles/files/DairyReport .pdf .
Francis, D.D. (1992). Control mechanisms to reduce fertilizer nitrogen movement into groundwater. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 47,6.
Hanley, N. (1991). Farming and the countryside: An economic Analysis of external costs and benefits. United Kingdom: C.A.B. International
Illinois Administrative Code 506. (2001).35: Environmental protection; E: Agriculture Related Pollution. Chapter I: Pollution Control Board Part 506 Livestock Waste Regulations.
Kerns, W.R. & Broomhall, D. (1992). Risk environmental priorities, and policy options in water quality. Blacksburg, Virginia, USA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Kofoed, A.D., Williams, J.H. & L‘Hermite, P. (1986). Efficient land use of sludge and manure. England: Commission of the European Communities
Lekasi, J.K., T anner, J.C., Kimani, S.K., & Harris, P.J.C.. (2001a). Managing manure to sustain smallholder livelihoods in the East African Highlands. UK: Garden Organic (formerly HDRA), Coventry, p 32.
Lekasi, J.K., T anner, J.C., Kimani, S.K, & Harris, P .J.C. (2001b). Manure management in the Kenya highlands: practices and potential (2nd Ed.). HDRA Publications, Emmersons, Farmer Ward Road, Kenilworth, UK. Garden Organic (formerly HDRA), Coventry, UK. p 35.
MacDonald, J.M. & McBride, W.D. (2009). The transformation of U.S. livestock agriculture: Scale, efficiency, and risks. United
States: Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/EIB43/EIB43.pdf.
Madison, F., Kelling, K., Petersen, J., Daniel, T ., Jackson, G. & Massie, L. (1986). Guidelines for applying manure to pasture and cropland in Wisconsin. Winsconsin-Madison: Department of Agricultural Journalism, University of Wisconsin -Madison.
Milne, J.A., (2005). Societal expectations of livestock farming in relation to environmental effects in Europe. Livest. Prod Sci. 96, 3-9.
Moore, P. A., Daniel, T. C., Sharpley, A.N. & Wood, C.W. (1995). Poultry manure management: Environmentally sound options.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 50 (3), 321.
Patni, N. K. (1994). Regulatory aspects of animal manure utilization in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food
Perkinson, R. (1994). Evolution of nutrient management in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Supplement . Journal of Soil and Water
Consewation. 49(2), 87.
Peters, K. (1998). Community-based waste management for environmental management and income generation in low-income areas: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya . Retrieved from http://www.cityfarmer.org/NairobiCompost .html.
Rachuonyo, H.A., Pond, W.G. and McGlone, J.J. (2002). Effects of stocking rate and crude protein intake during gestation on ground cover, soil-nitrate concentration, and sow and litter performance in an outdoor swine production system. J Anim Sci 80, 1451-1461.
Rachuonyo, H.A., Curtis, S.E., Hoeft, R.G., Gonzini, L.C., & Ellis, M. (2013). Determination of nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and excretion and 15N dilution from labeled corn in swine diets. African Journal of Education, Science and Technology. 1(1), 21-38.
Rolfe, C.J.B. (1993). Using subsidies to promote environmental protection in agriculture: A Review of Programs in North
America and Europe. Vancouver: West Coast Environmental Law Association
Safley, L.M. (1994). Best management practices for livestock pro duction. Supplement. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49(2), 57.
Smith, K.A. & Chambers, B.J. (1993). Utilizing the nitrogen content of organic manures on farms – problems and practical solutions. Soil Use and Management, 9 (3).
Spellman, F.R. & Whiting, N.E. (2007). Environmental management of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Storm Water Manager‘s Resource Center (SWMR). Pollution prevention fact sheet: Animal waste collection. Retrieved from http://www.stormwatercenter.net .
Sunderland, N. (1991). Danish pollution laws bear down on farming. Farmers Weekly.
Sutton, A. L. (1990). Animal agriculture‟s effect on water quality: pastures and feedlots. Indiana: Department of Animal Science.
Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Bleeker, A., & Datta, A. (2013). The global nutrient challenge: From science to public engagement .
Environmental Development . Elsevier 6, 80 – 85.
Swedish Board of Agriculture. (1994). Programme controlling nutrient Leakage from Agriculture. Stig Karfsson - Swedish Institute of Agriculture Engineers.
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1989). Improving income and housing: employment generation in low-income
settlements. Nairobi: UNCHS.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development . (1992). Agenda 21: Program of Action for Sustainable
Development. New York: UNCED.
Watson, J., Hassinger, E., Ref fruschinni, K., Sheedy, M. & Anthony, B. (1994). Best management practices meeting water quality goals. Supplement . Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 49 (2), 39.
Weinberg, A.C. (1994). Nutrient management measure to be implemented in the Coastal Zone‖. Supplement. Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation. 49(2), 71.