Molecular Structure Profiles of Major Chemical Components of Vernonia amygdalina and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Extracts
Plants contain various chemical components some of which play vital roles in the bodies of plants and animals. It is essential that the chemical composition of these plants be well elucidated in o rder to come up with their mode of action. The objective of this study was to determine the major chemical constituent of Vernonia amygdalina and Tephrosia vogelii leaf extracts and elucidate the molecular structure profiles of the chemical components. Mature leaves were collected from Kenya Agriculture Research institute (KARI) Naivasha. Collection was done during two peak seasons, dry season February and wet season April. Chemical analysis involved determination of chemical extractive content of the plant leaves; the crude extract of the plants was obtained by Soxhlet extraction using the different solvents comprising of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, toluene/ethanol (2/1 v/v) mixture and water, followed by characterisation of the plant extracts by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H 13C NMR), Fourier-Infra red Analysis (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Assays for Chemical Constituents and compound identification were based on National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The major secondary metabolites detected in all plants were glycosides, whereas, tannins and rotenoids were detected in Tephrosia only. A higher amount of these compounds were observed during the dry season compared to the wet season. This could be attributed to the increase in maturation of leaves during the dry season. Sesquiterpene lactones were on the other hand detected only in Vernonia during both the wet and dry season at the same amounts.
Adaramoye, O.A., Akintayo, O., Achem, J., & Fafunso, M.A. (2008). “Lipid-Lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholestral diet‘, Vascular Health and Risk Management 4 (1), 235-241.
Afolayan, A. J., Grierson, D.S., & Erasto, P.(2006) ‗Bioactive Sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina.‘ Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106, 117-120.
Agbon, A., Ofojekwu, & Ezenwaka,.(2004) ‗Acute toxicity of water extracts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook to species relevant in aquaculture ponds: rotifers, Cyclops, mosquito larvae and fish.‘ J. Appl. Ichtyol, 20, 521 – 524.
Akah, P .A., & Okafor, C.I . (1992).‗Hypoglycaemic effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del, in experimental rabbits‘. Plant Med. Res. 1, 6-10
Beal, D.L. & Anderson, R. V. (1993). ―Response of zooplankton to rotenone in small pond‖. Bulletin of Enviromental Contamination and Toxicology, 51, 551-556.
Beentje, H. J. (1994). Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya, 722 pp. ISBN 9966986103.
Bonsi, M. L. K., Ouji, P. O., Tuah, A. K., & Umunna, N. N. (1995).―Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw (Eragrotis tef.) fed to Ethopian Menz sheep‖. Agroforestry Sytems 31, 229-241.
Dale, I.R., & Greenway, P.J. (1961). Kenya trees and Shrubs. Buchanan,s Kenya Estates Ltd.
Dzenda, T ., Ayo, J.O., Adelaiye, A.B. & Adaudi, A.O. (2008).―Ethnomedical & Veterinary uses of Tephrosia vogelii Hook F‖ Nigerian Veterinary journal, 28(3), 24-39
Huffman, M.A., Page J. E., Sukhdeo, M. V. K.., Gotoh, S., Kalunde, M. S., & T owers, G. H. N. (1996). ―Leaf Swallowing by
Chimpanzee: A behavioural adaptation for the control of strong nematode infections‖. International Journal of Primatology 72, 475-503.
Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines in Africa . New York: Chichester John Wiley & Sons